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Cashmere wool, usually simply known as cashmere, is a fiber obtained from cashmere goats, pashmina goats, and some other breeds of goat. It has been used to make yarn, textiles and clothing for hundreds of years. Cashmere is closely associated with the Kashmir shawl, the word “cashmere” deriving from an anglicisation of Kashmir, when the Kashmir shawl reached Europe in the 19th century. Both the soft undercoat and the guard hairs may be used; the softer hair is reserved for textiles, while the coarse guard hair is used for brushes and other non-apparel purposes.A number of countries produce cashmere and have improved processing techniques over the years but China and Mongolia are two of the leading producers as of 2019. Afghanistan is ranked third.Some yarns and clothing marketed as containing cashmere have been found to contain little to no cashmere fiber, so more stringent testing has been requested to make sure items are fairly represented. Poor land management and overgrazing to increase production of the valuable fiber has resulted in the decimation and transformation of grasslands into deserts in Asia, increasing local temperatures and causing air pollution which has traveled as far as Canada and the United States
カシミアウールは、カシミア山羊、パシュミナ山羊、その他の山羊の品種から得られる繊維で、通常、単にカシミアと呼ばれています。何百年もの間、糸や織物、衣服の材料として使用されてきました。カシミヤはカシミール・ショールとの関係が深く、19世紀にカシミール・ショールがヨーロッパに渡った際、カシミールが英語化されて「カシミヤ」と呼ばれるようになりました。柔らかい下毛と番毛の両方が使用されることがあり、柔らかい下毛は織物用に、粗い番毛はブラシなど非衣料用に使用されます。 多くの国がカシミアを生産し、長年にわたって加工技術を向上させてきましたが、2019年現在、中国とモンゴルが2大生産国となっています。アフガニスタンは3位にランクインしています。 カシミヤ入りとして販売されている糸や衣料品の中には、カシミヤ繊維がほとんど含まれていないものもあり、アイテムが公正に表現されているかどうか、より厳しい検査が求められているのです。カシミア繊維の生産量を増やすための不適切な土地管理と過放牧により、アジアでは草原が破壊され砂漠化し、気温の上昇や大気汚染がカナダやアメリカまで及んでいます。
Historically, fine-haired Cashmere goats have been called Capra hircus laniger, as if they were a subspecies of the domestic goat Capra hircus. However, they are now more commonly considered part of the domestic goat subspecies Capra aegagrus hircus or the alternate version Hircus Blythi Goat. Cashmere goats produce a double fleece that consists of a fine, soft undercoat or underdown of hair mingled with a straighter and much coarser outer coating of hair called guard hair. For the fine underdown to be sold and processed further, it must be de-haired. De-hairing is a mechanical process that separates the coarse hairs from the fine hair. After de-hairing, the resulting cashmere is ready to be dyed and converted into textile yarn, fabrics and garments
Cashmere wool is collected during the spring moulting season when the goats naturally shed their winter coat. In the Northern Hemisphere, the goats moult as early as March and as late as May. In some regions, the mixed mass of down and coarse hair is removed by hand with a coarse comb that pulls tufts of fiber from the animal as the comb is raked through the fleece. The collected fiber then has a higher yield of pure cashmere after the fiber has been washed and dehaired than produced by shearing. The long, coarse guard hair is then typically clipped from the animal and is often used for brushes, interfacings and other non-apparel uses. Animals in Iran, Afghanistan, New Zealand, and Australia are typically shorn of their fleece, resulting in a higher coarse hair content and lower pure cashmere yield. In America, the most popular method is combing. The process takes up to two weeks, but with a trained eye for when the fiber is releasing, it is possible to comb the fibers out in about a week. The term “baby cashmere” is used for fibres harvested from younger goats, and has a reputation of being softer.
歴史的には、細毛のカシミアヤギはCapra hircus lanigerと呼ばれ、あたかも家畜ヤギCapra hircusの亜種であるかのように考えられてきた。しかし、現在では家山羊の亜種Capra aegagrus hircusまたは別種のHircus Blythi goatに含まれると考えるのが一般的です。カシミアヤギの毛は、細くて柔らかいアンダーコートと、ガードヘアと呼ばれる硬くてまっすぐな外側の毛が混ざったダブルフリースと呼ばれる毛でできています。このアンダーダウンを販売するためには、毛を抜く必要があります。脱毛とは、機械的な処理によって、粗い毛と細かい毛を分離することである。毛を抜いたカシミヤは、染色され、繊維糸や生地、衣料品に生まれ変わります。
カシミヤの毛は、ヤギが自然に冬毛を脱ぐ春の換毛期に採取されます。北半球では早くて3月、遅くて5月に換毛期を迎えます。 地域によっては、ダウンと粗い毛が混ざった塊を、粗い櫛を使って手で取り除き、櫛がフリースをかき分ける時に繊維の房を引っ張り出します。集められた繊維は洗浄・除毛され、剪毛よりも純度の高いカシミヤが採取できます。長く粗い番毛は、通常、動物から切り取られ、ブラシやインターフェイスなど、アパレル以外の用途に使用されることがよくあります。イラン、アフガニスタン、ニュージーランド、オーストラリアのカシミアは一般的に刈り取られ、粗い毛が多く含まれるため、純粋なカシミアの生産量は少なくなります。アメリカでは、最も一般的な方法はコーミング(梳毛)です。この作業には2週間ほどかかりますが、繊維が放出されるタイミングを見極める訓練を受けていれば、1週間ほどで繊維を梳き取ることが可能です。若い山羊から収穫された繊維は「ベビーカシミア」と呼ばれ、より柔らかいという評判があります。
Cashmere also Cassimere, etc., “type of fine, soft woolen fabric,” favored for shawls, etc., 1839, short for Cashmere wool, from the old spellings of Kashmir, the Himalayan kingdom where wool was obtained from long-haired goats. As “shawl made of cashmere wool” from 1822.


For thousands of years, cashmere has been manufactured in Mongolia, Nepal, and Kashmir, where it is also known as pashm or pashmina due to its use in handmade shawls. Texts from as early as the 3rd century BC mention woolen shawls, and local traditions in Kashmir attribute the founding of the wool industry to either the 15th-century ruler Zain-ul-Abidin or the 14th-century saint Mir Sayyid Ali Hamadani. Commercial trading of raw cashmere between Asia and Europe began with Valerie Audresset SA of France, which claimed to be the first European company to spin cashmere commercially. The imported cashmere was beaten, washed, and combed using methods similar to worsted spinning. In the 18th and early 19th centuries, Kashmir had a thriving industry producing shawls from imported goat down. Napoleon Bonaparte’s campaign in Ottoman Egypt introduced the shawls to western Europe, where they became a sensation, and William-Louis Ternaux began producing imitation India shawls using the wool of Spanish merino sheep.
By 1811, Ternaux began experimenting with real India shawls using the down of Tibetan-cashmere goats. In 1818, he organized a famous expedition to Persia to establish herds of cashmere goats in France, but only a few goats arrived safely. Ternaux had little success getting small farmers to add cashmeres to their sheep herds, but a few wealthy landowners experimented with the goats. Polonceau crossbred cashmeres with Angora goats to improve the down for spinning and weaving. Some of Ternaux’s goats were purchased for a model farm at Grignon, near Versailles, and William Riley of New South Wales purchased thirteen goats in 1831 for trans-shipment to Australia. By the time Ternaux died in 1833, his herd at St. Ouen still numbered 150, but the herd at Perpignan had died out by 1829. Before the invention of shears, wool was typically plucked out by hand or by using bronze combs. During Roman times, wool, linen, and leather were the primary materials used for clothing in Europe, while cotton from India was a curiosity known only to naturalists and silks imported along the Silk Road from China were considered luxury items. According to Pliny the Elder’s Natural History, Tarentum was known for producing the finest wool thanks to selective breeding practices that had created sheep with superior fleeces but required special care.
As trade connections expanded, the production of wool cloth became an important economic activity in small centers such as Provins, France, and eventually spread throughout Europe. The annual Champagne fairs played a crucial role in facilitating the spread of woolens from Provins to other regions, including Naples, Sicily, Cyprus, Majorca, Spain, and Constantinople. By the 13th century, the wool trade had become the economic engine of the Low Countries and central Italy, and by the end of the 14th century, Italy was the primary center of wool production. The Florentine wool guild, Arte della Lana, imported English wool and processed it at the San Martino convent, while Garbo workshops processed Italian wool from Abruzzo and Spanish merino wools. Eventually, however, Italian wool exports to the Levant declined and were replaced by silk production by the 16th century.Before the invention of shears, wool was typically plucked out by hand or by using bronze combs. During Roman times, wool, linen, and leather were the primary materials used for clothing in Europe, while cotton from India was a curiosity known only to naturalists and silks imported along the Silk Road from China were considered luxury items. According to Pliny the Elder’s Natural History, Tarentum was known for producing the finest wool thanks to selective breeding practices that had created sheep with superior fleeces but required special care.
In 1830, the Scottish cashmere shawl industry using French-produced yarn had become a significant industry. The Scottish Board of Trustees for the Encouragement of Arts and Manufactures offered a reward of 300 pounds sterling to the first person who could spin cashmere in Scotland based on the French system. Captain Charles Stuart Cochrane gathered the necessary information while in Paris and obtained a Scottish patent for the process in 1831. In the fall of 1831, he sold the patent to Henry Houldsworth and Sons of Glasgow, who began manufacturing yarn in 1832 and received the reward in 1833.
The Delineator. v.34 no.4 1889
Dawson International claims to have invented the first commercial dehairing machine in 1890 and began purchasing cashmere from China in 1906. However, they were initially limited to buying fiber from Beijing and Tianjin until 1978 when trade was liberalized and Dawson International began purchasing cashmere from many provinces. Many textile centers emerged in the early stages of the American Industrial Revolution, including the Blackstone Valley, which became a significant contributor to the revolution. Uxbridge, Massachusetts, was an early textile center in the Blackstone Valley known for the production of cashmere wool and satinets. Austrian textile manufacturer Bernhard Altmann is credited with bringing cashmere to the United States on a mass scale beginning in 1947. Attempts to improve Afghanistan’s cashmere industry by importing Italian goats in the 2010s have been criticized as wasteful.
カシミヤは何千年も前からモンゴル、ネパール、カシミール地方で生産されており、手作りのショールに使われることからパシュムまたはパシュミナとも呼ばれる。紀元前3世紀の文献には毛織物のショールについて書かれており、カシミール地方では、毛織物産業の創業者は15世紀の支配者Zain-ul-Abidinか14世紀の聖人Mir Sayyid Ali Hamadaniだとする伝承が残っています。アジアとヨーロッパ間のカシミアの商業取引は、フランスのヴァレリー・オードレッセ社がヨーロッパで初めてカシミアを商業的に紡いだと言われています。輸入されたカシミアは叩いたり、洗ったり、梳いたり、ウーステッド紡績と同じような方法で紡がれました。18世紀から19世紀初頭にかけて、カシミール地方では輸入したヤギの羽毛からショールを作る産業が盛んであった。ナポレオン・ボナパルトのオスマン・エジプト遠征で、ショールが西ヨーロッパに紹介されると、ウィリアム・ルイ・テルノーがスペインのメリノ羊の毛を使ったインドの模造ショールを作り始め、センセーションを巻き起こした。 1811年には、チベット産カシミア山羊の羽毛を使った本物のインド・ショールの試作を開始した。1818年、カシミア山羊の群れをフランスに定着させるため、ペルシャ遠征を決行したが、無事に到着したのはわずか数頭であった。しかし、少数の裕福な地主たちは、カシミア山羊の飼育を試みました。ポロンソーはカシミアとアンゴラ山羊を交配し、紡績や織物用の羽毛を改良した。また、ニューサウスウェールズ州のウィリアム・ライリーは、1831年に13頭のヤギを購入し、オーストラリアに輸送しました。1833年にテルノーが亡くなった時、サン・トゥアンの山羊の数はまだ150頭だったが、ペルピニャンの山羊の数は1829年までに途絶えていた。鋏が発明される以前は、羊毛は通常、手やブロンズの櫛を使って摘み取られていた。ローマ時代、ヨーロッパでは羊毛、麻、革が衣服の主な素材であり、インド産の綿は博物学者にしか知られていない珍品、中国からシルクロードを通って輸入された絹は贅沢品と見なされていた。プリニウスの『博物誌』によると、タレントゥムは羊毛の産地として知られ、厳選された羊毛は優れた毛を持つが、特別な手入れが必要であった。 交易の拡大とともに、羊毛布の生産はフランスのプロヴァンなどの小さな都市で重要な経済活動となり、やがてヨーロッパ全土に広がっていった。プロヴァンからナポリ、シチリア、キプロス、マヨルカ島、スペイン、コンスタンティノープルなど、他の地域へ羊毛を広めるために、毎年開催されたシャンパーニュ市が重要な役割を担ったのである。13世紀には、羊毛貿易は低地地方と中部イタリアの経済エンジンとなり、14世紀末にはイタリアが羊毛生産の主要な中心地となったのである。フィレンツェの羊毛組合アルテ・デッラ・ラナはイギリスの羊毛を輸入してサン・マルティーノ修道院で加工し、ガルボ工房はアブルッツォのイタリア羊毛やスペインのメリノウールを加工していた。しかし、やがてイタリアのレヴァントへの羊毛輸出は減少し、16世紀には絹織物の生産に取って代わられた。鋏が発明される以前は、羊毛は手や青銅の櫛を使って摘み取るのが一般的だった。ローマ時代のヨーロッパでは、ウール、リネン、レザーが衣料品の主な素材であり、インド産のコットンは博物学者のみが知る珍品、中国からシルクロードを経て輸入されたシルクは贅沢品と見なされていた。プリニウスの『博物誌』によると、タレントゥムは羊毛の産地として知られており、特別な手入れを必要とするものの、優れた毛を持つ羊を選択的に繁殖させたとされている。
1830年、フランス製の糸を使ったスコットランドのカシミアショール産業は、重要な産業となっていた。スコットランドの芸術・製造奨励評議会は、フランスの方式に基づいてスコットランドで最初にカシミアを紡いだ者に300ポンドの報奨金を出すことを提案した。コクラン船長はパリで必要な情報を集め、1831年にその製法のスコットランド特許を取得した。1831年秋、彼はグラスゴーのヘンリー・ホールズワース・アンド・サンズに特許を売却し、1832年に糸の製造を開始、1833年に報奨金を受け取ったのである。 ドーソンインターナショナルは、1890年に最初の商業用脱毛機を発明し、1906年に中国からカシミアの購入を開始したと主張している。しかし、当初は北京と天津からの購入に限られていた。1978年に貿易が自由化され、ドーソンインターナショナルは多くの省からカシミアを購入するようになった。アメリカの産業革命の初期には、ブラックストーンバレーをはじめ、多くの繊維の中心地が誕生した。マサチューセッツ州アクスブリッジは、ブラックストーンバレーの中でも、カシミアウールとサテンネットの生産で知られる初期の織物の中心地であった。オーストリアの繊維メーカーBernhard Altmannは、1947年からカシミアを大量に米国に持ち込んだと言われています。2010年代にイタリアの山羊を輸入してアフガニスタンのカシミヤ産業を改善しようとした試みは、無駄遣いだと批判されています。
History of Kashmir
Kashmir (1930)
Kashmir The Story | Full Documentary On The History & Timelines Of Kashmir Valley
The history of Kashmir is closely intertwined with that of the Indian subcontinent in South Asia, with some minor influences from neighboring regions of Central Asia and East Asia. Originally, the term “Kashmir” referred solely to the Kashmir Valley in the Indian-administered state of Jammu and Kashmir. However, today it refers to a larger area that includes Indian-administered Jammu and Kashmir (comprising Jammu and the Kashmir Valley) and Ladakh, Pakistani-administered Azad Kashmir and Gilgit-Baltistan, and the Chinese-administered regions of Aksai Chin and the Trans-Karakoram Tract.
Kashmir was an important center of Hinduism in the first half of the 1st millennium and later, under the Mauryas and Kushanas, of Buddhism. During the ninth century, under the Karkota Dynasty, a native tradition of Shaivism emerged. This tradition flourished during the seven centuries of Hindu rule and continued under the Utpala and Lohara dynasties until the mid-14th century. Islamization of Kashmir began in the 13th century, accelerated under Muslim rule during the 14th and 15th centuries, and ultimately led to the decline of Kashmir Shaivism.
In 1339, Shah Mir became the first Muslim ruler of Kashmir, beginning the Shah Mir dynasty. For the next five centuries, Muslim monarchs ruled Kashmir, including the Mughal Empire from 1586 to 1751 and the Afghan Durrani Empire from 1747 to 1819. In 1819, the Sikhs, led by Ranjit Singh, annexed Kashmir. After their defeat in the First Anglo-Sikh War in 1846, the Treaty of Lahore was signed, and the region was purchased from the British under the Treaty of Amritsar by Gulab Singh, the Raja of Jammu, who became the new ruler of Kashmir. The rule of his descendants, under the tutelage of the British Crown, continued until 1947 when the former princely state became a disputed territory now administered by three countries: India, Pakistan, and the People’s Republic of China.
カシミールの歴史は、南アジアのインド亜大陸の歴史と密接に関係しており、隣接する中央アジアや東アジアの地域からも若干の影響を受けている。元来「カシミール」という言葉は、インド統治下のジャンムー・カシミール州のカシミール渓谷のみを指す言葉でした。しかし現在では、インド統治下のジャンム・カシミール州(ジャンム州とカシミール渓谷)とラダック、パキスタン統治下のアザド・カシミール州とギルギット・バルティスタン、中国統治下のアクサイチン州とトランス・カラコラム・トラクトを含む広い地域を指している。カシミール地方は、1世紀前半にはヒンドゥー教、その後マウリヤやクシャーナの時代には仏教の重要な中心地であった。9世紀には、カルコタ王朝のもとでシャイヴァ派の伝統が生まれた。この伝統は7世紀にわたるヒンドゥー教の支配下で栄え、14世紀半ばまでウトパラ王朝とロハラ王朝の下で継続された。13世紀に始まったカシミールのイスラム化は、14世紀から15世紀にかけてイスラム教徒の支配下で加速し、最終的にはカシミール地方のシャイヴァ派を衰退させることになった。1339年、シャー・ミールがカシミール地方初のイスラム教徒の支配者となり、シャー・ミル王朝が始まった。その後5世紀にわたり、1586年から1751年まではムガル帝国、1747年から1819年まではアフガニスタンのドゥラーニー帝国と、イスラムの君主がカシミールを支配した。1819年、Ranjit Singhに率いられたシーク教徒がカシミールを併合した。1846年の第一次アングロ・シーク戦争で敗れた後、ラホール条約が結ばれ、アムリトサル条約でジャンムーのラジャであるグラブ・シンがイギリスからこの地を買い取り、カシミールの新しい支配者となった。彼の子孫は、英国王室の指導のもと、1947年までその支配を続けた。かつて侯国だったこの地域は、現在では3カ国が管理する紛争地域となっている。現在では、インド、パキスタン、中華人民共和国の3カ国が統治する紛争地域となっている。
Cashmere goats are believed to have originated in China, and the Chinese have been working with cashmere for thousands of years. In ancient times, cashmere was reserved for royalty and the wealthy elite, and it was considered a symbol of luxury and prestige. Historically, the production of cashmere was centered in Inner Mongolia, a region in northern China that is home to large herds of cashmere goats. The goats were traditionally raised by nomadic herders, who would comb their wool by hand to collect the fine fibers. The raw cashmere would then be spun into yarn and woven or knitted into fabrics. During the 14th century, Chinese merchants began trading cashmere shawls with traders from India and Europe, introducing cashmere to a wider market. By the 19th century, cashmere had become a popular export for China, with European traders flocking to Chinese ports to purchase cashmere goods.
In the 20th century, China became a major player in the global cashmere industry, with the Chinese government promoting cashmere production as a key export. Today, China is the world’s largest producer of raw cashmere, with Inner Mongolia accounting for the majority of its production. Chinese manufacturers are known for their expertise in processing cashmere, and Chinese-made cashmere products are highly regarded for their quality and craftsmanship. Cashmere continues to be an important part of Chinese culture and economy, with Chinese consumers and international buyers alike seeking out high-quality cashmere products.



The Cashmere goat, whose wool is used to produce the luxurious fabric, is native to the high-altitude regions of Kashmir, a region in the north of India.The production of Cashmere in India dates back to at least the 15th century, with the wool traditionally woven into shawls by skilled craftsmen. These shawls were highly prized and were often gifted to royalty and other dignitaries.During the Mughal period in the 16th and 17th centuries, the production of Cashmere shawls reached its height, with weavers in Kashmir perfecting intricate weaving techniques and designs. The shawls became known for their exceptional softness, warmth, and beauty, and were highly sought after by wealthy patrons across India and beyond. 
Today, the production of Cashmere in India remains an important industry, with many skilled artisans continuing to weave traditional shawls and other garments. The government of India has also taken steps to protect the Cashmere industry, with measures to regulate the production and marketing of the fabric to ensure its authenticity and quality. Indian Cashmere remains highly valued for its unique qualities and rich cultural heritage, and continues to be a symbol of luxury and refinement.
インドにおけるカシミアの生産は、少なくとも15世紀には始まり、伝統的に熟練した職人によってショールが織られてきました。16世紀から17世紀にかけてのムガール帝国時代には、カシミアのショールの生産は最高潮に達し、カシミールの職人たちは複雑な織りの技術やデザインを完成させました。カシミヤショールは、その優れた柔らかさ、暖かさ、美しさで知られ、インド国内はもとより世界各地の富裕層のパトロンから絶大な支持を得ていました。 現在もインドにおけるカシミアの生産は重要な産業であり、多くの熟練した職人が伝統的なショールやその他の衣料品を織り続けています。また、インド政府はカシミア産業を保護するため、その真正性と品質を保証するためにカシミア生地の生産と販売を規制する措置を取っています。インドのカシミアは、そのユニークな品質と豊かな文化的遺産によって高く評価され、贅沢と洗練のシンボルであり続けています。
The country is home to large populations of the Cashmere goat, and the production of cashmere has been an important industry for many Mongolian herders for centuries.In Mongolia, cashmere production has traditionally been a cottage industry, with many small-scale producers hand-combing the wool from their own goats. The wool is then sorted, cleaned, and spun into yarn using traditional methods. The resulting cashmere yarn is then used to produce a range of garments, including hats, scarves, and sweaters.
Mongolian cashmere is highly prized for its softness and warmth, and is renowned for its high quality. The country’s harsh climate and rugged terrain mean that the Cashmere goats produce a wool that is especially thick and warm, making it ideal for cold weather garments.In recent years, the Mongolian government has taken steps to promote the country’s cashmere industry and to improve the quality of the wool produced. This has included initiatives to train herders in better animal husbandry practices and to improve the processing and marketing of cashmere products.Today, Mongolian cashmere is a popular luxury product, with many high-end fashion brands sourcing their cashmere from the country. The industry continues to be an important source of income for many Mongolian herders, and is an important part of the country’s cultural heritage.
Cashmere history in europe
Cashmere, a luxury fabric made from the wool of cashmere goats, has a rich history in Europe. Here are some key points in the history of cashmere in Europe:

■ The first recorded mention of cashmere in Europe dates back to the 16th century. Italian explorers and merchants brought back cashmere shawls from the Middle East and India, where they were highly valued.
■ Cashmere became popular in Europe in the 19th century, when the fashion for shawls and scarves grew. The French textile industry was one of the first to begin importing raw cashmere fibers from Kashmir, India, and experimenting with weaving and knitting cashmere fabrics.
■ The popularity of cashmere shawls in Europe led to the development of a thriving trade in Kashmiri textiles. European merchants would travel to India to buy cashmere shawls, which they would then sell in Europe for a significant markup.
■ The Scottish textile industry played a significant role in the development of cashmere in Europe. In the early 19th century, Scottish weavers began producing cashmere fabrics and garments, using imported cashmere fibers from Kashmir. The Scottish town of Hawick became a center for cashmere production and expertise.
■ In the 20th century, cashmere became more widely available to consumers, as production methods became more efficient and affordable. Cashmere products, such as sweaters, scarves, and coats, are now popular luxury items across Europe.

Today, cashmere is still highly valued in Europe for its softness, warmth, and luxurious feel. Countries such as Italy, Scotland, and France continue to be centers of cashmere production and design, and European consumers are among the largest buyers of cashmere products in the world.


■ ヨーロッパで初めてカシミアについて言及されたのは、16世紀にさかのぼります。イタリアの探検家や商人が中近東やインドからカシミアのショールを持ち帰り、高く評価されたのです。
■ カシミヤがヨーロッパで普及したのは、ショールやスカーフの流行が拡大した19世紀のことです。フランスの繊維産業は、いち早くインドのカシミール地方からカシミール原毛を輸入し、カシミール織物やニットの実験を開始した。
■ ヨーロッパでのカシミヤ・ショールの人気は、カシミヤ織物の貿易を盛んにするきっかけとなった。ヨーロッパの商人たちはインドまで行ってカシミヤのショールを買い付け、それをヨーロッパで高値で売ったのである。
■ ヨーロッパでのカシミヤの発展には、スコットランドの繊維産業が大きな役割を果たしました。19世紀初頭、スコットランドの織物業者はカシミールから輸入したカシミール繊維を使い、カシミール織物や衣料品の製造を開始しました。スコットランドのホウィックという町は、カシミアの生産と専門技術の中心地となりました。
■ 20世紀には、生産方法がより効率的になり、価格も手頃になったため、カシミアはより広く消費者に行き渡るようになりました。セーター、スカーフ、コートなどのカシミア製品は、今やヨーロッパ全土で人気の高級品となっています。


The rich history of cashmere in Scotland dates back to the early 19th century when Scottish weavers and textile manufacturers began experimenting with the production of cashmere wool. Cashmere, a type of wool derived from the undercoat of the Cashmere goat, is prized for its softness, warmth, and durability. Scottish weavers quickly recognized the potential of this luxurious material and began importing raw cashmere from India and Afghanistan. The first Scottish company to produce cashmere on a large scale was James and Alexander Rodger, established in 1815 in the town of Hawick in the Scottish Borders. Other manufacturers soon followed suit, and by the mid-19th century, Scotland had become one of the world’s leading producers of cashmere textiles. Scottish cashmere was highly sought after by fashion-conscious consumers across Europe and America.
The Scottish cashmere industry continued to grow and evolve throughout the 20th century, with many of the leading manufacturers based in the towns of Hawick, Galashiels, and Innerleithen. Scottish cashmere became known for its quality, craftsmanship, and distinctive designs, with many manufacturers collaborating with leading fashion houses to produce high-end garments.Today, the Scottish cashmere industry continues to thrive, with many manufacturers using traditional techniques to produce luxury garments and accessories. Scottish cashmere remains synonymous with quality, and many fashion-conscious consumers still seek out Scottish-made products for their superior craftsmanship and timeless style.
The history of cashmere in Italy dates back to the 19th century, when Italian textile manufacturers began importing raw cashmere wool from the Middle East and Central Asia. The wool was then spun into yarn and woven into fine fabrics using traditional techniques.One of the leading companies in the Italian cashmere industry was Loro Piana, which was founded in the early 19th century in Trivero, a town in the Piedmont region of Italy. The company quickly gained a reputation for producing high-quality cashmere products, and soon became a leading supplier to luxury brands around the world.
During the mid-20th century, the Italian cashmere industry continued to grow and evolve, with many companies producing a range of garments and accessories using the finest quality cashmere. Italian cashmere was highly prized for its softness, durability, and luxurious texture, and became a favorite among fashion-conscious consumers around the world.Today, the Italian cashmere industry remains an important part of the country’s textile heritage, with many companies continuing to produce high-quality cashmere garments and accessories. Italian cashmere is still highly sought after by luxury brands and consumers looking for the finest quality products, and is widely considered to be among the best in the world. The country’s long-standing reputation for quality and craftsmanship has helped to maintain its position as a leading producer of cashmere products in the global market.

Biella is a city in the Piedmont region of Italy, but it is worth mentioning because it is a key center of the European cashmere industry. Biella is known for its historic textile mills and its production of high-quality cashmere fabrics, which are used by many French and other European brands in their products.

Cashmere was first introduced to France in the early 19th century, when French textile manufacturers began importing raw cashmere wool from Asia and the Middle East. At that time, cashmere was a relatively unknown and exotic material in Europe, and it quickly gained popularity among the fashionable elite.The raw cashmere wool was imported from regions such as India, Tibet, and Mongolia, and was then processed and spun into yarn in French textile mills. The yarn was then woven into fine fabrics using traditional techniques, and the finished products were highly prized for their softness, warmth, and luxurious texture.
Over the course of the 19th century, the French cashmere industry grew and evolved, with many companies specializing in the production of high-quality cashmere garments and accessories. The industry continued to expand throughout the 20th century, with French cashmere becoming renowned for its quality and craftsmanship, and remaining a popular choice among consumers looking for luxury products.Today, France remains one of the leading producers of high-quality cashmere products in the world, with many companies continuing to use traditional techniques and high-quality raw materials to create the finest quality garments and accessories.