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Hemp, or industrial hemp, is a botanical class of Cannabis sativa cultivars grown specifically for industrial or medicinal use. It can be used to make a wide range of products. Along with bamboo, hemp is among the fastest growing plants on Earth. It was also one of the first plants to be spun into usable fiber 50,000 years ago. It can be refined into a variety of commercial items, including paper, rope, textiles, clothing, biodegradable plastics, paint, insulation, biofuel, food, and animal feed.
Cannabis is a genus of flowering plants in the family cannabaceae. The number of species within the genus is disputed. Three species may be recognized: cannabis sativa, c. indica, and c. ruderalis. Alternatively, c. ruderalis may be included within c. sativa, all three may be treated as subspecies of c. sativa,or c. sativa may be accepted as a single undivided species. The genus is widely accepted as being indigenous to and originating from Asia. The plant is also known as hemp, although this term is often used to refer only to varieties of Cannabis cultivated for non-drug use. Cannabis has long been used for hemp fibre, hemp seeds and their oils, hemp leaves for use as vegetables and as juice, medicinal purposes, and as a recreational drug. Industrial hemp products are made from cannabis plants selected to produce an abundance of fibre. Various cannabis strains have been bred, often selectively to produce high or low levels of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), a cannabinoid and the plant’s principal psychoactive constituent. Compounds such as hashish and hash oil are extracted from the plant.


Hemp and cannabis are both plants that belong to the same family, Cannabis sativa, but they are different varieties with distinct characteristics. The main difference between the two is the amount of THC (tetrahydrocannabinol), the psychoactive compound found in cannabis, that they contain. Hemp typically contains less than 0.3% THC, while cannabis can contain much higher levels of THC, ranging from a few percent to over 30%. Because of this difference in THC content, hemp does not produce the “high” associated with cannabis use, and it is generally grown and used for industrial purposes, such as producing fiber, building materials, and CBD oil. In contrast, cannabis is grown and used for medicinal and recreational purposes due to its psychoactive effects. It is also worth noting that hemp and cannabis have different legal statuses in many countries. While hemp is often legal to grow and use for industrial purposes, cannabis is illegal or heavily regulated in many places due to its psychoactive effects.

There are several reasons why people may not understand the difference between hemp and cannabis:
■ Lack of education: Many people are simply not familiar with the differences between hemp and cannabis and may not have had access to accurate information about the two plants.
■ Similar appearance: Hemp and cannabis plants can look very similar, especially to the untrained eye. This can make it difficult for people to differentiate between the two.
■ Stigma and confusion: Cannabis has been illegal in many parts of the world for a long time, and this has created a lot of stigma and confusion around the plant. Some people may not be aware that hemp and cannabis are different varieties of the same plant.
■ Changing laws: As laws around cannabis and hemp change, it can be difficult for people to keep up with the latest information and understand what is legal and what is not.

Overall, education and accurate information can help to clarify the differences between hemp and cannabis and help people to understand the benefits and uses of each plant.


■ 教育不足。多くの人は麻(ヘンプ)と大麻(カンナビス)の違いについてよく知らないだけで2つの植物に関する正確な情報にアクセスしたことがない可能性があります。
■ 外観が非常に似ている。麻(ヘンプ)と大麻(カンナビス)は特に素人目には非常によく似ているように見えます。そのため両者を区別することが困難な場合があります。
■ 差別・混乱・偏見。大麻は長い間、世界の多くの地域で違法とされてきたためこの植物に多くの汚名と混乱がもたらされてきました。ヘンプと大麻が同じ植物の異なる品種であることを知らない人も多いかもしれません。
■ 法律の変化 大麻とヘンプをめぐる法律が変わるにつれ人々が最新の情報を入手し何が合法で何が違法かを理解することが困難になる可能性があります。


The origin of the word “hemp” is uncertain, but there is no common Proto-Indo-European source for its various forms. The oldest attested form of the word is the Greek term κάνναβις (kánnabis), which may have been borrowed from an earlier Scythian or Thracian word. From there, it was likely borrowed into Latin, and separately into Slavic, and from there into Baltic, Finnish, and Germanic languages. In the Germanic languages, the “k” sound would have changed to an “h” sound due to Grimm’s law with the first Germanic sound shift, resulting in the Proto-Germanic word *hanapiz. This may have been adapted into Old English as hænep or henep. However, some argue that the spread of the name “kannabis” was due to its historically more recent plant use, starting from the south around Iran. Non-THC varieties of hemp are older and prehistoric.

Another possible source of origin is the Assyrian word qunnabu, which was the name for a source of oil, fiber, and medicine in the 1st millennium BC. In other Germanic languages, such as Dutch, Danish, Norwegian, Saterland Frisian, German, Icelandic, and Swedish, cognates of the word “hemp” exist. In these languages, “hemp” can refer to either industrial fiber hemp or narcotic cannabis strains.

古英語 hænep。 「大麻、カンナビス・サティバ」、原語ゲルマン語 *hanapiz (古サクソン語 hanap、古ノルド語 hampr、古高ドイツ語 hanaf、ドイツ語 Hanf も起源)。ゲルマン語では『グリムの法則』に従って「k」は最初のゲルマン音シフトで「h」に変化した可能性もある。おそらくギリシャ語 kannabisとなったスキタイ語の非常に初期のゲルマン語借用と思われる。1300年頃にはこの植物から作られる繊維の名前として使われるようになった。スラングとしての「マリファナ」は1940年代から麻から作られる麻薬の科学的応用は1870年からである。
1798年「麻」の意味である現代ラテン語の植物属名Cannabisから(1728年)、ギリシャ語のkannabis「麻」、スキタイ語またはトラキア語が語源である。この言葉は、アルメニア語 kanap’、アルバニア語 kanep、ロシア語 konoplja、ペルシャ語 kanab、リトアニア語 kanapės「麻」、英語 canvas およびおそらく hemp にも由来している。
The invention of paper in CHINA
It’s hard to overestimate how essential hemp has been to human civilization. Hemp is believed to be one of the earliest plants ever cultivated and the first whose fibers were used to make cloth. Some of the oldest archaeological relics of human history include a remnant of hemp fabric from ancient Mesopotamia (modern-day Iraq/Turkey/Iran) dating back to 8,000 BCE, and Yangshao amphorae (pottery jugs) with hemp cord imprinted onto them unearthed in Taiwan from between 4,000-6,000 BCE.As early as the Stone Age, the Chinese started spinning yarn and weaving cloth from hemp as an alternative to silk. Until the introduction of cotton around the 10-11th century CE, hemp was the dominant fabric used in Chinese society.
Ancient Chinese texts spoke of hemp textiles being used for rope, fishing nets, burial cloths, bowstrings, hats, shoes and robes – all corroborated by archeological evidence. The Shu Ching (one of the earliest known books in human history) contains numerous references to hemp – reporting that it was grown around castles in Shantung Province, was often gifted to peasants by royalty and was used to make military attire and weaponry. And the Er Ya – the earliest Chinese dictionary, written between 221 BCE and 24 CE – describes hemp fiber as “strong and soft, able to be spun into cloth” and states that its seeds and oil were a source of food.
ヘンプが人類の文明にとっていかに不可欠なものであったかは、計り知れない。ヘンプは、最も古くから栽培されていた植物のひとつであり、その繊維を利用して布を作った最初の植物と言われています。人類最古の考古学的遺物には、紀元前8000年頃の古代メソポタミア(現在のイラク、トルコ、イラン)の麻布の残骸や、紀元前4000~6000年頃の台湾で出土した麻紐が刷り込まれた甕壺(アンフォラ)などがある。紀元前10~11世紀頃に綿花が導入されるまで、麻は中国社会で使用される主要な布地でした。 中国の古文書には、麻の織物が縄、漁網、埋葬布、弓の弦、帽子、靴、衣服に使われていたと書かれており、これらはすべて考古学的証拠によって裏付けられている。蜀経』(人類最古の書物のひとつ)には、麻に関する記述が数多くあり、山東省の城の周辺で栽培されていたこと、王族から農民に贈られることが多かったこと、軍服や武器の製造に使用されていたことなどが報告されています。また、紀元前221年から紀元24年にかけて書かれた中国最古の辞書「二葉」には、麻の繊維について「丈夫で柔らかく、紡いで布にすることができる」と記述され、その種子と油は食料源であったと書かれている。
Hemp paper has a long history in China, dating back to at least the Western Han Dynasty (206 BCE to 9 CE). Chinese hemp paper was traditionally made from the bark of the mulberry tree, but it was also made from hemp fibers, which were used to produce high-quality paper that was valued for its durability and resistance to insects and mildew.
In addition to rope and fabric, the Chinese also used hemp to create one of their most impactful inventions: paper. The earliest paper was made by crushing hemp fiber and mulberry tree bark into a pulp, mixing it with water, draining it, placing it into a flat mold and drying it. It’s believed that the first hemp paper mills arose in China and parts of the Middle East as early as the 8th century BCE. The oldest known documents ever written on paper – Buddhist texts dating to the second and third centuries BCE – used this Chinese hemp paper.


Gathered hemp fiber was used to make cloth long before agriculture, nine to fifty thousand years ago. It may also be one of the earliest plants to have been cultivated. An archeological site in the Oki Islands near Japan contained cannabis achenes from about 8000 BC, probably signifying use of the plant. Hemp use archaeologically dates back to the Neolithic Age in China, with hemp fiber imprints found on Yangshao culture pottery dating from the 5th millennium BC. The Chinese later used hemp to make clothes, shoes, ropes, and an early form of paper. The classical Greek historian Herodotus (ca. 480 BC) reported that the inhabitants of Scythia would often inhale the vapors of hemp-seed smoke, both as ritual and for their own pleasurable recreation.
The tombs at Jirzankou resemble those from farther west on the Central Asian steppes.
Ancient people put cannabis leaves and hot stones in this brazier, and likely inhaled the resulting smoke.

The ancient Greek historian Herodotus documented between 450 and 420 BCE,
the cannabis use among the nomadic Scythian tribes that habitually traversed northern Greece and Asia Minor.

Textile expert Elizabeth Wayland Barber summarizes the historical evidence that Cannabis sativa, “grew and was known in the Neolithic period all across the northern latitudes, from Europe (Germany, Switzerland, Austria, Romania, Ukraine) to East Asia (Tibet and China),” but, “textile use of Cannabis sativa does not surface for certain in the West until relatively late, namely the Iron Age.” “I strongly suspect, however, that what catapulted hemp to sudden fame and fortune as a cultigen and caused it to spread rapidly westwards in the first millennium B.C. was the spread of the habit of pot-smoking from somewhere in south-central Asia, where the drug-bearing variety of the plant originally occurred. The linguistic evidence strongly supports this theory, both as to time and direction of spread and as to cause.”
Jews living in Palestine in the 2nd century were familiar with the cultivation of hemp, as witnessed by a reference to it in the Mishna (Kil’ayim 2:5) as a variety of plant, along with Arum, that sometimes takes as many as three years to grow from a seedling. In late medieval Germany and Italy, hemp was employed in cooked dishes, as filling in pies and tortes, or boiled in a soup. Hemp in later Europe was mainly cultivated for its fibers and was used for ropes on many ships, including those of Christopher Columbus. The use of hemp as a cloth was centered largely in the countryside, with higher quality textiles being available in the towns.(In fact, before the 20th century, historians estimate that around 80% of all clothing in the world was made from hemp.)


the Roman Empire
During the reign of Roman emperor Nero, a physician by the name of Dioscorides lists Medicinal Cannabis in his bench mark medical journal Pharmacopoeia,
one of the most influential herbal books in history
Hemp played an important role in the economy and culture of the Roman Empire. While the Romans did not use hemp for psychoactive purposes, they recognized its value as an industrial crop and used it for a wide range of purposes.
One of the most important uses of hemp in the Roman Empire was for the production of textiles. Hemp fiber was used to make a variety of fabrics, including sailcloth, canvas, and clothing. In fact, some scholars believe that hemp was the primary fiber used for clothing in ancient Rome, as it was more durable and resistant to wear than other materials.
In addition to textiles and rope, the Romans used hemp for a variety of other purposes. The plant was used as a food source for both humans and animals, and hemp oil was used in lamps and as a lubricant for machinery. Some Roman texts also suggest that hemp was used for medicinal purposes. The Roman Empire’s use of hemp helped to spread the crop throughout Europe and the Mediterranean region. Even today, hemp remains an important industrial crop and is used for many of the same purposes that the Romans valued it for, including the production of textiles, rope, and other products.
Crossing the Atlantic sea
The USS Constitution

Cannabis sativa (Hemp) During the colonial period, Spain played a significant role in the spread of hemp cultivation in the Americas. The Spanish Empire established colonies across Central and South America, bringing with them the knowledge and resources necessary for hemp cultivation. In the 1500s, Spanish colonizers introduced hemp to what is now Mexico, where it became a major cash crop. The plant was used for rope, textiles, paper, and other industrial purposes. Hemp cultivation continued to spread throughout the Spanish colonies, in Chile starting about 1545.  including what is now the southwestern United States. 

The Spanish also played a role in the introduction of hemp to the Caribbean, where it became an important crop on plantations. Hemp fiber was used to make sails and rigging for Spanish galleons, which were used to transport goods and people across the Atlantic Ocean. Spanish ships also brought hemp to the Philippines, where it became an important cash crop.Samuel Champlain reported the use of grass and hemp clothing by the (Wampanoag) people of Cape Cod and the (Nauset) people of Plymouth Bay told him they harvested hemp in their region where it grew wild to a height of 4 to 5 ft. In May 1607, “hempe” was among the crops Gabriel Archer observed being cultivated by the natives at the main Powhatan village, where Richmond, Virginia, is now situated; and in 1613,  Samuell Argall reported wild hemp “better than that in England” growing along the shores of the upper Potomac. As early as 1619, the first Virginia House of Burgesses passed an Act requiring all planters in Virginia to sow “both English and Indian” hemp on their plantations. The Puritans are first known to have cultivated hemp in New England in 1645. The Spanish influence on hemp in America continued through the 18th and 19th centuries. Spanish colonizers in California continued to cultivate hemp for industrial uses, and hemp was also grown in what is now Texas, New Mexico, and other southwestern states. In fact, the city of Córdoba in Argentina was once a major center for hemp production, and the plant was used to make rope, twine, and other products.Today, the Spanish legacy of hemp cultivation in the Americas can still be seen in places like Mexico and South America, where hemp continues to be grown for a variety of industrial uses.

Cannabis was also introduced to the Americas by the Spanish. Some historians believe that the Spanish brought cannabis with them on their ships, while others believe that cannabis arrived in the Americas with African slaves brought over by the Spanish. In any case, by the 17th century, cannabis was being grown in North America, with records showing that English colonists in Virginia were required to grow hemp. It’s likely that some of the hemp they grew was actually cannabis, as the two plants were not always distinguished from each other in early records. Cannabis was also used for medicinal purposes in the Americas. In fact, the first recorded use of cannabis as a medicine in the Western hemisphere was in the 16th century, when it was recommended by a Spanish doctor for the treatment of nausea, pain, and other symptoms. During the 19th century, cannabis continued to be used as a medicine in the United States, with numerous cannabis-based remedies and tonics available for purchase. However, as the 20th century began, attitudes towards cannabis began to change, and it was eventually criminalized in the United States and many other countries around the world.

カンナビスサティバは1512年にスペイン人がアメリカ大陸に麻を持ち込み、1545年頃からチリで栽培を開始された記録が残っています。ペルー、コロンビア、メキシコでも同様の試みが行われたが、麻の栽培が成功したのはチリだけでした。1605年7月Samuel ChamplainはケープコッドのWampanoag族が草や麻の衣服を使用していることを報告しています。またプリマス湾のNauset族は、麻が4〜5フィートの高さにまで自生する彼らの地域で収穫していることを話していた記録が残っています。1607年5月には、Gabriel Archerが現在バージニア州リッチモンドにあるポーハッタン村の中心部で先住民が栽培している作物に「ヘンプ」が含まれていることを確認しており、1613年にはSamuell Argallがポトマック上流の海岸沿いに「英国のものより良い」野生のヘンプが生えていると報告しています。1619年には、最初のバージニア州議会が、バージニア州のすべての耕作者が自分の農園に「イングランドとインディアンの両方」の麻をまくことを義務づける法律を可決しています。1645年、ニューイングランドでピューリタンが初めて麻を栽培したことが知られています。

THE United States OF AMERICA
George Washington was a proponent of hemp cultivation as it was a valuable cash crop used for making rope and fabric. In his diary in May 1765, he recorded sowing hemp seeds each day until mid-April and later harvesting 27 bushels in October of that year. Although some have suggested that Washington may have been growing female plants for the THC found in their flowers, an editorial remark accompanying the diary explains that this was because male plants were coarser and had larger stalks. Washington was likely growing hemp for industrial purposes, as he also imported Indian hemp plants from Asia, which were used for fiber and, by some growers, for intoxicating resin production. In a letter to William Pearce, who managed the plants for him in 1796, Washington wrote that he wanted all of the Indian hemp plant from the previous year to be sown again, as it was more valuable than common hemp.
Other U.S. presidents known to have farmed hemp for non-recreational purposes include Thomas Jefferson, James Madison, James Monroe, Andrew Jackson, Zachary Taylor, and Franklin Pierce. Prior to the American Civil War, hemp production made up a significant portion of antebellum Kentucky’s economy, and many slaves worked on plantations producing hemp. However, the Marihuana Tax Act of 1937 was passed in the United States, levying a tax on anyone who dealt commercially in cannabis, hemp, or marijuana. The businessmen Andrew Mellon, Randolph Hearst, and the Du Pont family were involved in passing the act to destroy the U.S. hemp industry.

One claim is that Hearst believed his extensive timber holdings were threatened by the invention of the decorticator, which he feared would allow hemp to become a cheap substitute for the paper pulp used for newspapers. However, research suggests that this fear was unfounded, as improvements to the decorticators in the 1930s could not make hemp fiber a cheaper substitute for fibers from other sources. Another claim is that Mellon, the Secretary of the Treasury and the wealthiest man in America at the time, had invested heavily in DuPont’s new synthetic fiber, nylon, and believed that the replacement of hemp was integral to the new product’s success. While DuPont and many industrial historians dispute a link between nylon and hemp, nylon became immediately a scarce commodity. During World War II, the U.S. government lifted the tax on hemp cultivation, and hemp was used extensively to make uniforms, canvas, and rope. The U.S. produced a short film in 1942 called Hemp for Victory, promoting hemp as a necessary crop to win the war. U.S. farmers participated in the campaign to increase U.S. hemp production to 36,000 acres in 1942, which was more than 20 times the production in 1941 before the war effort. In 1994, Executive Order 12919 identified hemp as a strategic national product that should be stockpiled.

ジョージ・ワシントンは、麻がロープや布の原料となる貴重な換金作物であることから麻の栽培を推奨していました。1765年5月の日記には”4月中旬まで毎日麻の実を蒔き10月に27ブッシェルを収穫した”と記されています。花に含まれるTHCを摂取するために雌株を栽培していたのではという説もありますが日記に添えられたコメントでは雄株の方が茎が太く粗いからだと説明されています。また、ワシントンはアジアからインド麻を輸入し繊維や一部の生産者によっては麻酔として生産していたことから工業用にも麻を栽培していた可能性が高いです。1796年植物を管理していたウィリアム・ピアースに宛てた手紙には、前年に植えたインディアンヘンプは普通の麻よりも価値が高いのでもう一度すべて播種してほしいと書いている手紙が見つかっています。その他、トーマス・ジェファーソン、ジェームズ・マディソン、ジェームズ・モンロー、アンドリュー・ジャクソン、ザカリー・テイラー、フランクリン・ピアースなどのアメリカ大統領が麻を栽培していたことが知られています。南北戦争前のケンタッキー州では、麻の生産が経済の大きな部分を占めており、多くの奴隷が麻を生産する農園で働いていました。しかし1937年にアメリカで大麻税法が制定され、大麻、ヘンプ、マリファナを商業的に扱う者に課税されることになりました。この法律の成立には、実業家のアンドリュー・メロン、ランドルフ・ハースト、デュポン一族が関わっており、アメリカの麻産業を壊滅させることを目的としていた可能性があります。ハーストは自分の所有する広大な木材がデコルティケーター(繊維を分離する機械)の発明によって脅かされると考え、ヘンプが新聞に使われる紙パルプの安価な代替品になることを恐れたとも言われています。しかしヘンプ繊維を他の繊維の安価な代用品にすることはできずにこの懸念は杞憂に終わったことが研究により明らかになりました。また当時アメリカで最も裕福な財務長官であったメロンがデュポンの新しい合成繊維であるナイロンに多額の投資をしていたので、麻の代替がこの新製品の成功に不可欠であると考えたという説もあります。デュポン社や多くの産業史研究者はナイロンと麻の関連性に異議を唱えていますが第二次世界大戦中にナイロンはたちまち希少価値な繊維となりました。アメリカ政府は麻の栽培税を解除して、麻は軍服、帆布、ロープなどに多用されるようになっりました。アメリカは1942年に「Hemp for Victory」という短編映画を制作しており、ヘンプが戦争に勝つために必要な作物であると宣伝しました。米国の農家もこのキャンペーンに参加し1942年には米国のヘンプ生産量は36,000エーカーになり戦前の1941年の20倍以上の生産量になりました。1994年、大統領令12919号は、ヘンプを備蓄すべき国家戦略物資と位置づけました。

The history of hemp in Spain dates back centuries. Hemp was likely introduced to the Iberian Peninsula by the Phoenicians, who used it for making ropes and sails for their ships. The Romans also used hemp for various purposes, including making textiles and paper.During the 16th century, hemp became an important crop in Spain. The Spanish crown encouraged the cultivation of hemp as a means of promoting economic growth, and Spanish farmers were required to grow hemp as part of their agricultural duties. Hemp was used to make ropes, canvas, and other materials that were essential for the Spanish navy, which was expanding rapidly at the time.
In the following centuries, hemp continued to be an important crop in Spain. However, the rise of synthetic materials and the decline of the maritime industry led to a decline in demand for hemp, and its cultivation became less common.
In recent years, there has been a resurgence of interest in hemp in Spain, particularly for its use in making textiles and as a source of CBD, a non-psychoactive compound found in the plant. The Spanish government has also taken steps to legalize medical cannabis, and there is a growing market for hemp-based products in Spain and throughout Europe.
In Portugal, During the Age of Discovery in the 15th and 16th centuries, Portuguese explorers are said to have brought hemp plants back from their travels to the New World.
King John IV, also known as “the Restorer,” ruled Portugal from 1640 to 1656. During his reign, hemp played an important role in the country’s economy and industry. At the time, Portugal was still a major naval power, and hemp was an essential material for the production of ropes and sails. King John IV recognized the strategic importance of hemp and encouraged its cultivation throughout the country. Under his rule, hemp became one of Portugal’s most important crops. Farmers were incentivized to grow it, and special taxes were levied on landowners who did not cultivate it. The government also established regulations to ensure the quality of hemp produced in the country.King John IV’s efforts to promote hemp production were successful, and Portugal became a major exporter of hemp products, including ropes, sails, and textiles. The country’s hemp industry continued to thrive for centuries, and Barcelos, which I mentioned earlier, became one of the main centers of hemp production in Europe.
In the 20th century, hemp production declined in Portugal due to the rise of synthetic fibers and other materials, but it has seen a resurgence in recent years. In 2018, the Portuguese government passed legislation that allows for the cultivation, import, and export of hemp for industrial purposes, including for use in textiles, paper, construction materials, and even as a source of biofuels.
Today, hemp is viewed as an important crop in Portugal, both for its economic potential and for its cultural significance. The country’s long history with the plant has given it a unique perspective on the potential of hemp, and many people in Portugal are working to promote its use as a sustainable and environmentally friendly material.



Hemp has a long and storied history in France. It is believed that hemp was introduced to France during the Roman Empire, and it was widely grown during the Middle Ages. By the 18th century, France had become one of the largest producers of hemp in Europe, and it was an important crop for the French textile industry. During the French Revolution, hemp played a key role in the production of uniforms for the French army. In fact, the French revolutionary government made the cultivation of hemp mandatory, and farmers who failed to comply could face severe penalties.

In the 19th century, the French hemp industry began to decline as synthetic fibers became more popular. However, hemp continued to be an important crop in certain regions of France, particularly in the areas around Nantes and Rennes. World War II, the German occupation of France led to a shortage of materials, including textiles. As a result, the French government once again encouraged the cultivation of hemp, and it was used to make clothing, paper, and other essential materials.

In the post-war period, the popularity of synthetic materials led to a further decline in the French hemp industry. However, in recent years, there has been a renewed interest in hemp in France, particularly for its use in making textiles and building materials. Today, France is one of the leading producers of hemp in Europe, and the government has taken steps to promote the use of hemp for industrial purposes. The country’s long history with the crop has made it an important part of French cultural heritage, and it continues to be an important crop for many farmers in the country.


Hemp has a long history in the UK. The plant was known for its versatility and was used for a wide range of purposes, including as a food source, for the production of textiles, paper, and construction materials, and for medicinal purposes. During the 16th and 17th centuries, hemp was an important crop for the British navy, which relied on it for the production of ropes, sails, and other materials. The quality of British hemp was highly regarded and the country became a major exporter of hemp products around the world.
In the 18th century, hemp was an important crop in the UK, particularly for the production of rope and sailcloth. The British navy was a major consumer of hemp, and the country was one of the leading producers and exporters of hemp products in the world. At the time, hemp was cultivated in many parts of the country, particularly in areas with moist soil, such as East Anglia and the Fens. The plant was grown using traditional agricultural methods, and harvesting was done by hand. The process of turning hemp fiber into rope or sailcloth was a complex one. The hemp had to be soaked in water for several days to loosen the fibers, and then the fibers were beaten with a mallet to separate them from the plant material. The resulting fibers were then spun into yarn, which was used to create rope or sailcloth. Hemp rope was used for a wide range of purposes, from securing cargo on ships to mooring boats to pulling heavy loads. Sailcloth made from hemp was prized for its durability and strength, and was used on many of the world’s largest and most important sailing ships.
However, the 20th century brought major changes to the hemp industry in the UK. The rise of synthetic fibers and other materials led to a decline in hemp production, and the criminalization of cannabis made it illegal to grow or possess the plant. The Misuse of Drugs Act, which was passed in 1971, classified cannabis as a Class B controlled substance, and the penalties for cultivation or possession were severe.


hemp has been cultivated in China for thousands of years and has played a significant role in the country’s history and culture. Hemp fibers were used to make textiles, paper, and rope, and the seeds were used as a source of food and oil.

■ Hemp cultivation in China dates back to at least 2800 BC. The earliest known record of hemp in China is from the Huangdi Neijing, a medical text from the Western Han Dynasty (206 BC – 24 AD), which mentions the use of hemp as a treatment for various ailments.
■ During the Han Dynasty (202 BC – 220 AD), hemp was used to make paper. The famous Chinese scholar Cai Lun, who is credited with inventing papermaking, is said to have used hemp fibers as one of his materials.
■ Hemp fibers were also used to make clothing, particularly for the lower classes. Hemp clothing was durable and inexpensive, making it a popular choice for everyday wear.
■ The Chinese also used hemp for its nutritional properties. Hemp seeds were a source of protein, and they were often ground into a paste or used to make a type of porridge.
■ In Chinese traditional medicine, hemp was used to treat a variety of ailments, including pain, inflammation, and digestive issues. Hemp leaves and flowers were often boiled to make a tea or decoction.

One of the earliest mentions of hemp in Chinese literature is in the Shu Jing, or Book of Documents, which dates back to the 11th century BC. The text describes the use of hemp fibers to make clothing and other goods, and it also mentions the medicinal properties of the plant. Hemp continued to be an important crop in China throughout the centuries. During the Song Dynasty (960-1279 AD), hemp was one of the main crops grown in the region around the Yangtze River. The fibers were used to make a variety of goods, including clothing, fishing nets, and even musical instruments.

In the 20th century, hemp cultivation in China was briefly interrupted by political and economic upheavals. However, in recent years, the country has experienced a resurgence of interest in the crop. In addition to its traditional uses, hemp is now being studied for its potential as a source of biofuel, building materials, and other sustainable products.

■ 中国での麻の栽培は、少なくとも紀元前2800年にまでさかのぼります。中国における麻の最古の記録は、前漢時代(紀元前206年~紀元24年)の医学書「黄帝内経」で、様々な病気の治療法として麻を使用することが記載されています。
■ 漢の時代(紀元前202年〜紀元220年)には、麻は紙の原料として使われていた。製紙を発明したとされる中国の著名な学者、蔡倫は麻の繊維を材料の一つとして使用したと言われています。
■ 麻の繊維は、特に下層階級の人々の衣服にも使われた。麻の衣服は丈夫で安価なため、日常着として親しまれました。
■ 中国では、麻の栄養価の高さも利用されていた。麻の実にはタンパク質が含まれており、ペースト状にしたり、お粥のようなものにしたりすることが多かったようです。
■ 中国の伝統医学では、麻は痛み、炎症、消化不良など、さまざまな病気の治療に使われました。麻の葉や花を煮出して、お茶や煎じ薬にすることが多かったそうです。


Hemp has a long and complex history in Japan, dating back at least 10,000 years. Hemp was likely introduced to Japan by immigrants from the Asian mainland and was used for fiber, food, and medicine. Hemp played a particularly important role in the Shinto religion, where it was used to make sacred ropes and clothing for priests.
Hemp has been cultivated and used in Japan for over a thousand years. In fact, it is one of the oldest known plants used for fiber in Japan. Historically, hemp was an important crop for the country, and it played a major role in Japan’s economy and culture. Hemp was used to make a variety of goods, including clothing, ropes, paper, and even currency. The Japanese government actually required farmers to cultivate hemp during certain periods of history in order to ensure an adequate supply for the country’s needs. One of the most interesting uses of hemp in Japan was for making traditional clothing, such as the kimono. Hemp fibers were highly valued for their strength and durability, and the fabric made from them was breathable and comfortable, making it ideal for warm weather.
During the Edo (1603-1868), hemp production became a major industry in Japan. The Tokugawa shogunate actively promoted hemp cultivation and production to support the country’s growing population and economy. Hemp was used to make a wide variety of products, including clothing, paper, rope, and even currency.
In the early 20th century, Japan began to import cheaper cotton from the United States, which caused a decline in domestic hemp production. Hemp production was further curtailed during World War II, when the Japanese government focused on producing cotton and other materials for the war effort.
After the war, the Allied occupation forces banned the production of hemp in Japan due to its association with the Japanese military. However, in the 1950s, hemp production was allowed to resume as a way to help alleviate food shortages. Japan’s post-war constitution also explicitly protected the right to produce and consume hemp, which is still legal in Japan today.In recent years, there has been renewed interest in hemp in Japan, particularly for its potential use in textiles and as a sustainable crop. The government has also launched initiatives to support the domestic hemp industry, including research and development programs and subsidies for hemp farmers.