History of the shirt vol.1

MAY – 2024 30 MINS READ

The shirt is one of the garments with a long history, dating back to ancient Egypt and continuing to the present day. In ancient Egypt, simple shirts made from linen fabric were common. Similarly, in ancient Greece, the tunic, a loose-fitting garment, was widely worn. This tunic, characterized by its design of being fastened with brooches at the shoulders, was popular across various social strata and worn by both men and women.

Subsequently, during the Roman Empire, shirts known as tunica became widespread. In medieval Europe, while maintaining their basic shape, shirts became more elaborate with richer decorations and materials. Particularly, the dress shirt evolved through various social and cultural transformations over the centuries into the refined style we see today.During the Renaissance in the 16th century, dress shirts adorned with luxurious embroidery and lace became fashionable among the nobility. By the 19th century, influenced by the Victorian era, the modern dress shirt’s design began to take shape. Today, dress shirts are widely recognized as essential items for business and formal occasions.

This site explores the evolution of the shirt, detailing historical styles such as the Greek tunic, the Roman tunica, and the ruff, leading up to the modern dress shirt. Additionally, we will delve into the design, materials, and occasions for wearing shirts across different eras, showcasing how the shirt has developed into its current form. By tracing this history, you will gain a deeper understanding of the cultural background and fashion changes embedded in the shirt.

シャツは、古代エジプトから現代までの長い歴史を持つ衣類の一つです。古代エジプトの時代には、リネンの布を使って作られたシンプルな形のシャツが見られました。同様に、古代ギリシアでは、チュニックとして知られるゆったりとした衣装が一般的でした。このチュニックは、肩にブローチを使って留めるデザインが特徴で、男女問わず幅広い階層で愛用されました。 その後、ローマ帝国時代にはトニカとして知られるシャツが広まり、中世ヨーロッパでは、基本的な形状を維持しながらも装飾や素材が豊かになりました。特にドレスシャツは、数世紀にわたってさまざまな社会的、文化的変遷を経て、現代の洗練されたスタイルへと進化しました。 16世紀のルネサンス期には、豪華な刺繍やレースをあしらったドレスシャツが貴族の間で流行し、19世紀には、ビクトリア朝の影響で現在のドレスシャツに近い形が確立されました。今日では、ドレスシャツはビジネスやフォーマルな場に欠かせないアイテムとして広く認識されています。 本サイトでは、シャツの進化の過程を探り、ギリシアのチュニックやローマのトニカ、そしてラフといった歴史的なスタイルから、現代のドレスシャツまでを詳しく解説していきます。さらに、各時代のシャツのデザインや素材、着用される場面についても詳しく取り上げ、シャツがどのようにして現在の形に至ったのかを紹介します。歴史を辿ることで、シャツに込められた文化的背景やファッションの変遷をより深く理解していただけることでしょう。その後、ローマ帝国時代にはトニカとして知られるシャツが広まり、中世ヨーロッパでは、基本的な形状を維持しながらも装飾や素材が豊かになりました。特にドレスシャツは、数世紀にわたってさまざまな社会的、文化的変遷を経て、現代の洗練されたスタイルへと進化しました。16世紀のルネサンス期には、豪華な刺繍やレースをあしらったドレスシャツが貴族の間で流行し、19世紀には、ビクトリア朝の影響で現在のドレスシャツに近い形が確立されました。今日では、ドレスシャツはビジネスやフォーマルな場に欠かせないアイテムとして広く認識されています。


Ancient : 古代
Ancient Egypt
Period: Approximately 3100 BCE to 30 BCE
Characteristics: Rule of the Pharaohs, pyramid construction, linen garments
Ancient Egyptian clothing was predominantly made of linen. Linen, a fabric derived from the flax plant, was well-suited to Egypt’s hot climate due to its breathability, keeping the body cool, and was therefore widely used in everyday life. Common men in Egypt wore a garment called the “shendyt,” a basic piece of clothing resembling a short skirt, which was wrapped around the waist and secured. Women wore a long dress known as the “kalasiris,” which had a simple design with shoulder straps and fit snugly to the body, extending down to the ankles.In contrast, women of the nobility and the wealthy class wore more elaborate kalasiris, which consisted of multiple layers or transparent linen. These dresses were adorned with embroidery and decorations, making them more luxurious. Nobles and officials often wore long-sleeved tunics, also made of linen, with elaborate embroidery and embellishments.Originally housed at the now-ruined Scone Abbey in Scone, near Perth, the Stone’s journey took a dramatic turn in 1296 when King Edward I of England seized it during his invasion of Scotland. For over half a millennium, it was then used in the coronation ceremonies of English and later British monarchs.In a historic move, the Stone was returned to Scotland in 1996, where it now resides in Edinburgh Castle alongside the Honours of Scotland. Despite its return, the Stone remains under the ownership of the Crown and is transported to London for use in coronation ceremonies.
期間: 紀元前3100年頃~紀元前30年頃
特徴: ファラオの統治、ピラミッド建設、リネンの衣服
Ancient Egyptian clothing was predominantly made of linen. Linen, a fabric derived from the flax plant, was well-suited to Egypt’s hot climate due to its breathability, keeping the body cool, and was therefore widely used in everyday life. Common men in Egypt wore a garment called the “shendyt,” a basic piece of clothing resembling a short skirt, which was wrapped around the waist and secured. Women wore a long dress known as the “kalasiris,” which had a simple design with shoulder straps and fit snugly to the body, extending down to the ankles.In contrast, women of the nobility and the wealthy class wore more elaborate kalasiris, which consisted of multiple layers or transparent linen. These dresses were adorned with embroidery and decorations, making them more luxurious. Nobles and officials often wore long-sleeved tunics, also made of linen, with elaborate embroidery and embellishments.Originally housed at the now-ruined Scone Abbey in Scone, near Perth, the Stone’s journey took a dramatic turn in 1296 when King Edward I of England seized it during his invasion of Scotland. For over half a millennium, it was then used in the coronation ceremonies of English and later British monarchs.In a historic move, the Stone was returned to Scotland in 1996, where it now resides in Edinburgh Castle alongside the Honours of Scotland. Despite its return, the Stone remains under the ownership of the Crown and is transported to London for use in coronation ceremonies.
シェンティ(英: Shendyt, shentiとも)は、古代エジプトの古王国時代から新王国時代にかけて広く男子一般に用いられた腰布です。「シャンティ」や「ロインクロス」とも呼ばれています。シェンティは、主に薄手の白麻や亜麻で作られ、多くの場合、染色は施されませんでした。丈は太ももの半ばから膝上程度の短いものから脛にかかるほどの長いものまであり、腰を飾り帯で締めて着用しました。低い身分の人々は短い布地を腰に巻いただけの簡素なものを着用しましたが、高い身分の人々は細かく襞を畳んで長い布地を装飾的に着装していました。貴族や神官などの特権階級は、王を真似て固く糊付けした三角形の前垂れを下げていました。
Ancient : 古代
Ancient Greece
Period: Approximately 3100 BCE to 30 BCE
Characteristics: Rule of the Pharaohs, pyramid construction, linen garments
Ancient Greek clothing was primarily made of wool and linen, widely used for their comfort and ability to keep the body cool. Wool, made from sheep’s wool, provided warmth suitable for colder climates, while linen, made from flax, was breathable and ideal for hot weather. Common men in Ancient Greece wore a garment called a “chiton.” This long tunic-like piece was secured with fasteners at the shoulders and waist. The chiton varied in length, reaching either the knees or the ankles, and was suitable for active daily life. Women wore either a “peplos” or a “chiton,” which were simple designs fastened at the shoulders with brooches, extending down to the ankles. In contrast, noble and wealthy women wore more elaborate chitons and peplos, adorned with intricate embroidery and decorations, making them stand out at special occasions and festivals. Nobles and high-ranking officials also wore a long-sleeved mantle called a “himation.” This garment was made from high-quality wool or linen and often featured luxurious embroidery and embellishments.
期間: 紀元前800年頃~紀元前146年頃
特徴: ポリス(都市国家)の発展、哲学や科学の進歩、チュニック(ヒマティオンやキトン)の着用
The chiton (χιτών) was a garment worn by both men and women in ancient Greece. Around the 6th century BCE, clothing made from linen imported from Egypt began to replace the traditional woolen fabrics.For women, there were two main styles of wearing the chiton. The Doric style was similar to the traditional peplos, where the upper edge was folded over, the fabric wrapped around the body, and fastened at both shoulders, with a belt tied at the waist. The Ionic style involved two pieces of fabric sewn together at the sides with openings for the arms, fastened at intervals from the shoulders to the wrists, and secured with a belt. Sometimes, the Doric chiton (peplos) was worn over the Ionic chiton.Men also wore the chiton in two ways. One style, similar to the women’s Doric style, was fastened at both shoulders. Another style, called the exomis (ἐξωμίς), was fastened only at the left shoulder. Women’s chitons reached the ankles, while men’s chitons were typically thigh-length. However, shorter lengths were worn by children, soldiers, travelers, shepherds, and hunters. High-ranking men and those in ceremonial dress wore ankle-length chitons.
The chiton was often white, but some were dyed, as depicted in frescoes. Generally, the chiton was dyed lighter than the outer himation. Both men and women wore a himation, a woolen cloak, over their chiton. A shorter version of the himation, called a chlamys, was favored by travelers and shepherds. When worn by women, it was known as the kranidion.The chiton was fastened with fibulae (or fibulae), brooches made of bronze with a pin that did not touch the skin. Belts were made of leather with metal buckles for high-ranking men, while women used decorative sashes or leather belts. Greek jewelry, though more understated than Egyptian, included delicate metalwork. Notable examples from Greek mythology include Harmonia’s necklace and the bribe necklace given to Eileithyia.Hats included the petasos, a wide-brimmed traveler’s hat associated with the god Hermes. Footwear varied by status: sandals for the high-ranking, thin-soled shoes (socks) for comedic actors, half-boots for tragedians, and canvas-like shoes for free citizens. Slaves were not allowed to wear shoes.The chiton became everyday wear for Roman women, with the married women’s version known as the stola.
Doric chiton
The Doric chiton is made from a single rectangle of woolen or linen fabric. It can be worn plain or with an overfold known as an apoptygma (ἀπόπτυγμα), which is more commonly worn by women. The chiton can be draped and fastened at the shoulders using pins (Greek: peronai; Latin: fibulae), sewing, or buttons.
Ionic chiton
The Ionic chiton could be made from linen or wool and was draped without the fold, secured from neck to wrist with several small pins or buttons. Herodotus mentions that the attire of Athenian women changed from the Doric peplos to the Ionic chiton after the widows of soldiers killed in the military expedition to Aegina used their peplos pins to stab and kill the sole survivor, each demanding the whereabouts of their husbands. This act of lynching was deemed even more horrific than the original disaster. Consequently, the chitons were thereafter fastened with buttons, often decorated with the face of the Gorgon.
ドーリア式キトンは、1枚の長方形のウールまたはリネンの布で作られています。シンプルなままで着用することもできますが、女性にはアポプティグマ(ἀπόπτυγμα)と呼ばれる折り返し部分があるものが一般的です。キトンは肩でピン(ギリシャ語: ペロナイ、ラテン語: フィビュラ)や縫い付け、またはボタンで留めることができます。
Ancient : 古代
Ancient ROMA
Period: 753 BCE – 476 CE
Characteristics: Expansion of the Roman Empire, widespread use of the tunica (tunic)
The history of ancient Rome spans a long period from its founding in 753 BCE to the fall of the Western Roman Empire in 476 CE. During this time, Rome evolved from a city-state into a vast empire, with a flourishing of diverse cultures and technologies. Clothing played an important role in reflecting social status, occupation, and daily life.The most basic garment in ancient Rome was the tunica (tunica). Both men and women wore tunicas, which varied in length from knee-length to ankle-length. Some had sleeves, while others did not, and they were primarily made of wool or linen. The tunica’s simple design made it suitable for everyday activities and home wear, fitting closely to the body.The toga was the official attire for Roman male citizens, particularly worn by high-ranking individuals and during official events. The toga was a large rectangular piece of cloth wrapped around the body, usually made of white wool. Specific colors and decorations on the toga indicated specific roles or social statuses. For example, the toga praetexta, with its purple border, was worn by high-ranking officials and boys.Married women in Rome wore a long dress called the stola. The stola was typically worn over the tunica, reaching down to the ankles. It often featured a belt at the waist and was made from luxurious materials and adorned with embroidery, making it particularly popular among wealthy women.For outerwear, women used the palla, a shawl or cloak-like garment. The palla was draped over the stola and worn over the shoulders or head. It was made from wool or linen and often featured bright colors and decorations. The chlamys was a short, cape-like cloak primarily worn by soldiers and travelers. Fastened at the shoulder with a brooch, the chlamys was designed for active use and practical purposes.
期間: 紀元前753年~紀元476年
特徴: ローマ帝国の拡大、トニカ(チュニック)の普及
古代ローマの歴史は、紀元前753年の建国から始まり、紀元476年の西ローマ帝国の滅亡までの長い期間にわたります。この期間において、ローマは都市国家から広大な帝国へと発展し、多様な文化や技術が花開きました。その中で、衣服は社会的地位や職業、日常生活の一部として重要な役割を果たしていました。古代ローマの最も基本的な衣服は、トゥニカ (Tunica) でした。トゥニカは男女ともに着用し、膝丈または足首までの長さがありました。袖が付いているものと付いていないものがあり、主にウールやリネンで作られていました。トゥニカは日常的な活動や家庭内での着用に適しており、体にフィットするシンプルなデザインが特徴です。ローマ市民権を持つ男性の公式な衣装としては、トガ (Toga) がありました。特に高位の人物や公式の場で着用されるトガは、長方形の大きな布を体に巻きつけるもので、通常は白いウールで作られていました。特定の色や装飾が施されたトガは、役職や社会的地位を示すものでした。例えば、紫の縁取りがあるトガ・プラエテクスタ (Toga Praetexta) は、高位の官僚や少年が着用しました。ローマの既婚女性は、ストーラ (Stola) と呼ばれる長いドレスを着用しました。ストーラは通常、トゥニカの上に重ねて着用され、足首までの長さがありました。ウエストをベルトで締めるデザインで、豪華な素材や刺繍が施されたものが裕福な女性の間で特に人気がありました。女性が外出時に着用する衣服としては、パッラ (Palla) がありました。パッラはショールやマントのような衣服で、ストーラの上に羽織り、肩や頭にかけて着用しました。ウールやリネンで作られ、鮮やかな色や装飾が施されることもありました。主に兵士や旅行者が着用するクラミス (Chlamys) は、短いケープ状のマントでした。クラミスは肩にブローチで留めるデザインで、活動的な場面での使用に適していました。
Men and women in the Roman Empire wore a tunica. The tunica was a long garment made of linen, wool, and/or cotton, fastened around the waist with a belt. For men, the tunica hung to the knee, but for women, it was longer. Until the rise of Christianity, the tunica was the only undergarment for men, who were otherwise naked underneath. It was only later in history, during Christianization, that men began to wear a loincloth (crotchless hip covering) or a type of pants under the tunica. Women also wore a chest band, fastened with a cloak pin or fibula. The tunica worn by women was sometimes also called a stola. The common people who wore only a tunica were called Tunicati.The social rank of individuals was easily identifiable by their clothing. The different Roman garments were very simple: the tunica reached the knees or calves and was adorned with a purple stripe called a clavus for the higher ranks. This stripe was wide for senators and narrower for equites.

The toga (/ˈtoʊɡə/, Classical Latin: [ˈt̪ɔ.ɡa]), a distinctive garment of ancient Rome, was a semicircular cloth between 12 and 20 feet (3.7 and 6.1 m) long, draped over the shoulders and around the body. Typically woven from white wool, it was worn over a tunic. According to Roman tradition, Romulus, the founder of Rome, favored the toga.  Initially, it was worn by both sexes and the citizen-military, but as Roman women adopted the stola, the toga became formal wear exclusively for male Roman citizens. Exceptions to this rule included women guilty of adultery and those engaged in prostitution.

Different types of togas indicated the wearer’s rank within the civil hierarchy. Various laws and customs restricted its use to citizens, who were required to wear it for public festivals and civic duties. The toga evolved from a simple, practical garment to one that was voluminous, complex, and costly, becoming increasingly unsuitable for anything but formal and ceremonial use. It was considered ancient Rome’s “national costume” and had great symbolic value. However, even among Romans, it was difficult to put on, uncomfortable, and challenging to wear correctly, and it was never truly popular. Whenever possible, those entitled or obliged to wear the toga opted for more comfortable, casual garments. Over time, the toga gradually fell out of use, first among lower-class citizens, then among the middle class. Eventually, it was worn only by the highest classes on ceremonial occasions.

There are various theories about the shape of the toga, ranging from rectangular to oval. The most supported theory, based on marble statues, suggests it was shaped like an octagon cut in half. This hypothesis primarily applies to formal wear during the late Republic, and it’s unclear if everyday togas or earlier versions had this shape.When worn formally, each pleat had a specific name and required meticulous arrangement. Slaves would prepare the pleats with ancient irons the day before. Aristocratic households employed trained slaves for dressing.

Umbo (shoulder to chest)
Plicae (shoulder area)
Lacuna (feet area)
Sinus (back to waist)

トガ / トーガ
mediaeval : 中世
The Middle Ages, spanning from the 5th to the 15th century, marked a pivotal period in European history, bridging the fall of the Roman Empire and the dawn of the Renaissance and the Age of Exploration. This era witnessed profound transformations and developments across various spheres of society. In its early phase, the collapse of the Roman Empire and the invasions by Germanic tribes led to significant social upheaval, giving rise to new kingdoms across Europe. During the mid-Middle Ages, the establishment of the feudal system structured society around the relationship between lords and peasants, forming the backbone of the social order. Concurrently, Christianity exerted immense influence, with the Church becoming a central institution in political and cultural life.The Middle Ages were also marked by the Crusades, which facilitated interactions between Europe and the Islamic world, spurring commercial and cultural growth. Agricultural advancements led to population increases and the rise of towns and cities. Merchants and craftsmen organized into guilds, invigorating economic activity. The later Middle Ages faced challenges such as the Black Death and the Hundred Years’ War, yet these trials were accompanied by the early stirrings of the Renaissance, characterized by a revival of classical learning and a renewed focus on art and scholarship. 
The Middle Ages, characterized by a dynamic interplay of disorder and regeneration, saw the evolution of feudalism, the dominance of the Church, the expansive influence of the Crusades, and the burgeoning of urban and commercial life. These interwoven elements shaped the foundation of European society, leaving a lasting legacy that profoundly influenced the cultural, economic, and political landscape of modern Europe. This era’s transformations laid crucial groundwork for the developments that followed, making it a vital chapter in the history of Western civilization. The chlamys was a short, cape-like cloak primarily worn by soldiers and travelers. Fastened at the shoulder with a brooch, the chlamys was designed for active use and practical purposes.
Early Middle Ages (5th to 10th Century)
Characteristics: This period was marked by the chaos following the fall of the Roman Empire. Germanic tribes established kingdoms throughout Western Europe. The Frankish Kingdom and the Byzantine Empire rose to prominence, and Christianity spread widely.
Economy and Society: The economy was primarily agrarian, and the feudal system began to develop. Decentralization advanced, with local lords ruling over peasants, which became a common social structure.

High Middle Ages (11th to 13th Century)
Characteristics: The power of the Church reached its zenith, and the Crusades were launched. There was significant growth in commerce and urban development, and guilds and merchants began to gain influence.
Economy and Society: Agricultural techniques improved, leading to population growth. The feudal system stabilized, and local castles and monasteries became centers of culture and economy.

Late Middle Ages (14th to 15th Century)
Characteristics: Despite the turmoil caused by the Black Death and the Hundred Years’ War, the beginning of the Renaissance saw a revival in culture and learning.
Economy and Society: Economic diversification and the growth of commerce increased the importance of cities. The feudal system gradually declined, and centralization advanced.

The chlamys was a short, cape-like cloak primarily worn by soldiers and travelers. Fastened at the shoulder with a brooch, the chlamys was designed for active use and practical purposes.
特徴: ローマ帝国の崩壊後の混乱期。ゲルマン部族が西ヨーロッパ各地に王国を築きました。フランク王国やビザンティン帝国が力を持ち、キリスト教が広まりました。 経済と社会: 農業経済が中心で、封建制度が発展しました。地方分権が進み、領主が農民を支配する形が一般的でした。

特徴: 教会の権力が頂点に達し、十字軍が行われました。商業と都市の発展が見られ、ギルドや商人が力を持ち始めました。 経済と社会: 農業の技術が進歩し、人口が増加。封建制度が安定し、地方の城や修道院が文化や経済の中心となりました。

特徴: 黒死病の流行や百年戦争などの混乱がありましたが、ルネサンスの始まりと共に文化や学問が再び活発になりました。 経済と社会: 経済の多様化と商業の発展により、都市の重要性が増しました。封建制度は徐々に衰退し、中央集権化が進みました。

The medieval tunic evolved dramatically from the simple and practical designs of the early Middle Ages, through the ornate and elegant styles of the high Middle Ages, to the complex and luxurious fashions of the late Middle Ages. This evolution reflects the social, economic, and cultural changes of each period, while also being heavily influenced by regional cultures and external interactions, leading to a wide variety of styles across Europe.

In the early Middle Ages, tunics were primarily influenced by Germanic tribes and the remnants of the Roman Empire, featuring simple designs focused on practicality. Common materials included linen and wool, with wool being particularly favored in colder regions. As the Middle Ages progressed into the high period, tunics became more decorative, incorporating embroidery, lace, and gold thread trims. The aristocracy especially adopted these more elaborate designs, which became increasingly elegant.

By the late Middle Ages, tunics had grown even more intricate, featuring ruffles, pleats, and using luxurious materials such as silk and velvet. Aristocratic tunics often displayed religious motifs or family crests embroidered into the fabric, reflecting the economic prosperity and cultural exchanges of the time.

Tunics played a crucial role in various aspects of daily life, from everyday wear to ceremonial and official events. The decorations and designs on tunics went beyond mere clothing, serving as significant indicators of the wearer’s social status and cultural background. Medieval tunics are essential for understanding European history and culture, as their evolution symbolizes the diversity and richness of medieval European society. Through the study of tunic styles, we can gain insights into the social and cultural trends of medieval Europe.

Early Middle Ages (5th to 10th Century) 
  1. 410: Sack of Rome by the Visigoths
  2. 476: Fall of the Western Roman Empire
  3. 496: Conversion of Clovis I to Christianity
  4. 527-565: Reign of Justinian I in the Byzantine Empire
  5. 568: Lombards invade Italy
  6. 590-604: Papacy of Gregory I (Gregory the Great)
  7. 711: Umayyad conquest of the Iberian Peninsula
  8. 732: Battle of Tours (Battle of Poitiers) – Franks defeat the Umayyad Caliphate
  9. 800: Charlemagne crowned as Holy Roman Emperor
Shape: Simple design ranging from knee-length to ankle-length. Long sleeves with a loose fit at the waist.
Materials: Mainly linen and wool. Wool was common in colder regions, while linen was preferred in warmer areas. Decoration: Modest embroidery and trims were sometimes used.

Western Europe:
In regions dominated by Germanic tribes, practical and durable designs were favored. In the Frankish Kingdom, more elaborate decorations were seen.

Byzantine Empire:
Luxurious tunics with vibrant colors and gold thread embroidery were common, and silk was also used.

  1. 410年: 西ゴート族によるローマ略奪
  2. 476年: 西ローマ帝国の崩壊
  3. 496年: クローヴィス1世のキリスト教改宗
  4. 527年-565年: ビザンティン帝国でユスティニアヌス1世の治世
  5. 568年: ロンバルド族のイタリア侵入
  6. 590年-604年: グレゴリウス1世の教皇在位
  7. 711年: ウマイヤ朝によるイベリア半島侵入
  8. 732年: トゥール・ポワティエ間の戦いでフランク王国の勝利
  9. 800年: カール大帝の神聖ローマ帝国皇帝戴冠
  10. 843年: ヴェルダン条約によりフランク王国の分裂
形状: シンプルで膝丈から足首までの長さ。長袖でウエスト部分はゆったり。
素材: 主にリネンやウール。寒冷地ではウール、暖かい地域ではリネンが一般的。 装飾: 控えめな刺繍やトリムが施されることがありました。

Tunic with Dionysian Ornament probably 5th century
Tunics, usually worn in layers, were the standard dress of the Mediterranean world. Officials, nobles, and well-to-do citizens wore long ones with expansive long sleeves. The outer garment was embellished with woven, ornamented medallions and bands, called clavi. Here, dancing warriors possibly associated with Dionysos, the Greek god of wine, decorate the squares. Vine leaves and interlace patterns decorate the clavi.
Kamision or himation from one of the 7th century horsemen’s graves at Antinoopolis, made of fine linen, with tightly closed cuffs, it has a triangular neck opening and bands of silk embroidery, Berlin Museum
High Middle Ages (11th to 13th Century)
  1. 1066: Norman Conquest of England and the Battle of Hastings
  2. 1095: Council of Clermont – Call for the First Crusade
  3. 1099: Capture of Jerusalem by the First Crusade
  4. 1122: Concordat of Worms – Resolution of the Investiture Controversy
  5. 1187: Recapture of Jerusalem by Saladin
  6. 1204: Sack of Constantinople during the Fourth Crusade
  7. 1215: Signing of the Magna Carta
  8. 1241: Mongol invasion of Europe (Battle of Legnica)
  9. 1270: Failure of the Eighth Crusade
  10. 1291: Fall of Acre – End of the Crusader States in the Holy Land
Shape: Designs became more sophisticated, with fitted waists and increased decoration on sleeves and hems.
Materials: In addition to linen and wool, expensive materials like silk became more commonly used.

Luxurious embroidery, lace, and gold thread trims became common, with the nobility favoring particularly ornate designs.

Simple, practical Anglo-Saxon tunics were prevalent, but after the Norman Conquest, French-style ornate designs were introduced.

Elegant designs influenced by Gothic architecture were popular, with elaborate decorations.

Byzantine-inspired luxurious decorations and light, airy designs influenced by Southern Europe were common.
  1. 1066年: ノルマン・コンクエストとヘースティングズの戦い
  2. 1095年: クレルモン会議での第1回十字軍の呼びかけ
  3. 1099年: 第1回十字軍によるエルサレム奪還
  4. 1122年: ヴォルムス協約による教皇と皇帝の争いの終結
  5. 1187年: サラディンによるエルサレム奪還
  6. 1204年: 第4回十字軍によるコンスタンティノープル略奪
  7. 1215年: マグナ・カルタの制定
  8. 1241年: モンゴル帝国のヨーロッパ侵攻(リグニッツの戦い)
  9. 1270年: 第8回十字軍の失敗
  10. 1291年: アッコ陥落による十字軍国家の終焉
形状: デザインが洗練され、ウエストにフィットする形状が登場。袖や裾に装飾が増加。 素材: リネンやウールに加え、絹などの高価な素材が使用されるように。
装飾: 刺繍やレース、金糸のトリムなど、豪華な装飾が一般的に。貴族階級では華やかなデザインが好まれました。



Tunic from Moselund, find from bog dated to ca. 1100. National Museum of Denmark, Copenhagen. Source: ØSTERGÅRD, Else. Woven into the earth: textiles from Norse Greenland. ISBN 978-8772889351.
Stephen (c. 1092/6 – 25 October 1154), often referred to as Stephen of Blois (Old French: Estienne de Blois), was a grandson of William the Conqueror. He was King of England from 1135 to his death, and also the Count of Boulogne in right of his wife. Stephen’s reign was marked by the Anarchy, a civil war with his cousin and rival, the Empress Matilda. He was succeeded by Matilda’s son ,Henry II, the first of the Angevin kings
A pointed hat with possibly trim or a rolled edge. Bibl. Sainte-Genevieve 0009, f143v, 1175-1200, France.
Men picking and treading grapes is from folio 9v of the Fécamp Psalter representing the month of September in the calendar.At the end of the 12th c.some very distinguished psalters were made in monastic circles in northern France,on the border of Artois and Flanders. The manuscript was made at the Norman abbey at Fécamp in Normandy for an unidentified woman donor
English: David playing the harp. From the Westminster Psalter, BL Royal MS 2 A xxii f. 14v. Held and digitised by the British Library. c 1200
Winemaking/viticulture scenes (Normandy, 12th century – Den Haag, Königliche Bibliothek) Wine in the Middle Ages, what a nice program… This is about an exhibition which ended november 11 and was centered on wine in an era that seems light years…
Detail from “The Rutland Psalter”, medieval (c1260), British Library Add MS 62925. f 41r
1300-1308 England, BSB Cod.gall. 16 – Psalter of Queen Isabella of England
Late Middle Ages (14th to 15th Century)
  1. 1337: Start of the Hundred Years’ War
  2. 1347-1351: Black Death plague in Europe
  3. 1378-1417: Western Schism (Papal Schism)
  4. 1381: Peasants’ Revolt in England (Wat Tyler’s Rebellion)
  5. 1415: Battle of Agincourt – English victory
  6. 1431: Execution of Joan of Arc
  7. 1453: Fall of Constantinople – End of the Byzantine Empire
  8. 1455-1487: Wars of the Roses in England
  9. 1492: Fall of Granada and the Reconquista completion; Christopher Columbus reaches the Americas
  10. 1494: Start of the Italian Wars
Practical designs influenced by the Hundred Years’ War were common, but the nobility favored elaborately decorated tunics.

Lavish designs influenced by Baroque styles were popular, with extravagant court attire.

Classical designs influenced by the Renaissance became fashionable, with artistic decorations.
Shape: Designs became even more complex, with fitted waists, ruffles, and pleats. Tunic lengths varied from knee-length to ankle-length.

Materials: Expensive silk and velvet were widely used, with elaborate decorations becoming more common.

Decoration: Embroidered, laced, and jeweled tunics were popular among the nobility, featuring religious motifs and family crests.

  1. 1337年: 百年戦争の開始
  2. 1347年-1351年: 黒死病のヨーロッパ大流行
  3. 1378年-1417年: 大シスマ(教会大分裂)
  4. 1381年: イングランドのワット・タイラーの乱
  5. 1415年: アジャンクールの戦いでイングランドの勝利
  6. 1431年: ジャンヌ・ダルクの火刑
  7. 1453年: コンスタンティノープルの陥落と東ローマ帝国の終焉
  8. 1455年-1487年: イングランドのバラ戦争
  9. 1492年: グラナダの陥落とスペイン統一、コロンブスのアメリカ大陸到達
  10. 1494年: イタリア戦争の開始
形状: デザインがさらに複雑化し、ウエストにフィットする形状やフリル、プリーツが増加。丈も膝丈から足首まで多様化。

素材: 高価な絹やベルベットが多用され、豪華な装飾が施されるように。 装飾: 刺繍やレース、宝石で装飾されたチュニックが貴族階級で流行。宗教的なモチーフや家紋が含まれることも。




Speculum Humanae Salvationis, Westfalen oder Köln, um 1360. ULB Darmstadt, Hs 2505, fol.
Edward II was an English king who lived between the 13th and 14th centuries AD. A stark contrast to his highly capable father Edward I, Edward II was a weak ruler.
Book of Hours (`Hours of Simon de Varie’; use of Paris). Guillaume Alecis (Alexis), Prayer to Mary Place of origin, date: Paris, Master of Jean Rolin, Master of the Dunois Hours (illuminators); 1455. Added miniatures (74 G 37a): Tours, Jean Fouquet (illuminator); c. 1455
Chronik Ulrich von Richental, ca. 1475, southwest germany Wien, Österr. Nationalbibl., Cod. 3044
Titel:Buch der BeispieleDetail/Element:Der Pläneschmied zerschlägt das Honiggefäß; (Kapitel VII: Von dem Einsiedler).Künstler/Urheber:Antonius.1480-1490.

Der Schneider sitzt auf einem Hocker und näht mit einer Nadel an einem auf dem Schoß liegenden roten Mantel. Vor ihm auf dem Tisch liegen Elle und Schere und vorgeschnittener Stoff für eine Hose, während fertige Kleidungsstücke, u.a. ein grünes Wams und ein paar Hosen an der Wandstange hängen. Am Boden steht ein Korb. 


My research is taking a step back to the basics. I have recently been studying the relatively modern period of the 1800s and 1900s, but I believe that a solid foundation in the history of the shirt begins with the tunic , chiton and toga etc. However, as underwear is not as common in warmer regions, I would like to focus my research on clothing from northern regions this time.This research will surely lead to shirts as underwear.