スクリーンショット 2024-01-14 16.28.46


January – 2024 10 MINS READ

I initially thought that Scotland, including its connections to Ireland, was a Gaelic nation. Of course, that’s not entirely wrong, but it’s not entirely correct either. This is because I thought that the Kingdom of Dál Riata eroded and integrated the Pictish Kingdom, but it seems it was the Picts who eroded Dál Riata. The Scottish king ‘Kenneth MacAlpin’ (in Gaelic, Coinneach mac Ailpein) is an important figure in this respect. And this unification leads to the formation of Scotland.
私は最初にスコットランドはアイルランドの繋がりも含めてゲール人の国だと思っていました。もちろんそれは間違ってはないのですが、全てが正解でもないようです。というのもDál Riata王国が侵食していってピクト王国を統合したと思っていたのですが、ピクト人がDál Riataを侵食していったようです。そして今回紹介するスコットランドの王「Kenneth MacAlpin(ゲール語 Coinneach mac Ailpein)」はその点において重要な人物です。そしてこの統一がスコットランドに繋がっていきます。
King Kenneth I of Scotland / Kenneth MacAlpin
Kenneth MacAlpin (Medieval Gaelic: Cináed mac Ailpin; Modern Scottish Gaelic: Coinneach mac Ailpein; 810 – 13 February 858) or Kenneth I was King of Dál Riada (841–850), King of the Picts (843–858), and the first King of Alba (843–858) of likely Gaelic origin. He inherited the throne of Dál Riada from his father Alpín mac Echdach, founder of the Alpínid dynasty. Kenneth I conquered the kingdom of the Picts in 843–850 and began a campaign to seize all of Scotland and assimilate the Picts, for which he was posthumously nicknamed An Ferbasach (“The Conqueror”). He fought the Britons of the Kingdom of Strathclyde and the invading Vikings from Scandinavia. Forteviot became the capital of his kingdom and Kenneth relocated relics, including the Stone of Scone from an abandoned abbey on Iona, to his new domain.Kenneth I is traditionally considered the founder of Scotland, which was then known as Alba, although like his immediate successors, he bore the title of King of the Picts. One chronicle calls Kenneth the first Scottish lawgiver but there is no information about the laws he passed.

According to the genealogy of the Scottish kings, Kenneth’s father was Alpín mac Echdach, the King of Dál Riada, which existed in what is now western Scotland. Alpín is considered to be the grandson of Áed Find, a descendant of Cenél nGabráin, who ruled in Dál Riada. The Synchronism of the Irish Kings lists Alpín among the kings of Scotland. Modern historians are sceptical about the reign of Alpín in Dál Riada and his relationship with Áed, and believe this misconception is the result of negligence on the part of the scribes in some texts. The genealogy of the kings of Scotland and Dál Riada dates back to an original manuscript that was written during the reign of Malcolm III in the mid-to-late 11th century. The Rawlinson B 502 manuscript provides the following ancestry for Kenneth:

…Cináed son of Alpín son of Eochaid son of Áed Find son of Domangart son of Domnall Brecc son of Eochaid Buide son of Áedán son of Gabrán son of Domangart son of Fergus Mór …

There is very limited information about Alpín, the father of Kenneth. Some of Dál Riada’s royal lists, which contain many scribal errors, say he ruled from 841 to 843. The Chronicle of Huntingdon, which was written in the late 13th century, states Alpín defeated the Picts at Galloway but the Picts then defeated him in a battle that took place in the same year, during which Alpín was killed. According to the chronicle, Alpín died on 20 July 834. This date is given in other sources but several researchers claim the date was probably copied from another source and the year of his death was obtained by recalculating the dates in the erroneous royal lists so they attribute Alpín’s date of death to 840, or 841.

Alpín’s mother is likely to have been a Pictish princess, the sister of Constantine I and Óengus II. According to the Pictish tradition, a female representative of the royal dynasty could inherit the crown. This origin gave Kenneth a legitimate claim to the Pictish throne.

Kenneth I had at least one brother, Donald I, who succeeded him as king. 

  • Early Years: Kenneth MacAlpin was likely born around 810 in Iona, now part of Scotland. He became King of Dál Riada after his father’s death, around 840 or 841.

  • Conquest of Pictavia: Kenneth defeated the Picts in the second year of his reign and ruled there for 16 years. He was possibly the King of the Picts from 842 or 843 until his death in 858.

  • Geopolitical Challenges: In the 9th century, Dál Riada was mountainous and difficult to traverse. The Vikings were raiding its borders. This might have prompted Kenneth to attack the Picts.

  • Pictish Kings: After the death of Eóganan mac Óengusa, Uurad and then Bridei VI became Pictish kings. The Pictish kingdom fell around 849 or 850. Kenneth might have killed Pictish leaders during his conquest.

  • King of Alba: After annexing the Picts, Kenneth formed a new kingdom named Alba (later Scotland). He was the first King of Scotland in later records, but historians believe the final unification happened later.

  • Relocation and Assimilation: The Scots migrated to Pictish territories. Kenneth moved religious relics to Dunkeld and the Stone of Scone to Scone. The Scots assimilated the Picts without much resistance.

  • Military Actions: Kenneth invaded Lothian six times and faced attacks from Strathclyde and Vikings.

  • Royal Marriages: He arranged marriages for his daughters with kings of neighboring states.

  • Death and Succession: Kenneth died in 858, probably on February 13, in Forteviot. His brother Donald I succeeded him, followed by his sons. The Alpínid dynasty was established during this period.

…Cináed son of Alpín son of Eochaid son of Áed Find son of Domangart son of Domnall Brecc son of Eochaid Buide son of Áedán son of Gabrán son of Domangart son of Fergus Mór …

Information about Alpín, Kenneth’s father, is sparse. Some royal lists from Dál Riada, known for scribal inaccuracies, suggest he reigned from 841 to 843. The 13th-century Chronicle of Huntingdon records that Alpín defeated the Picts in Galloway, but suffered defeat and death in the same year at their hands. This chronicle dates his death to 20 July 834, a date echoed in other sources, but some researchers argue this date is borrowed, and recalculations based on the flawed royal lists suggest 840 or 841 as the year of his death.

It is probable that Alpín’s mother was a Pictish princess, sister to Constantine I and Óengus II. In Pictish tradition, the crown could be inherited through a female member of the royal family, giving Kenneth a legitimate claim to the Pictish throne.

Kenneth I had at least one sibling, Donald I, who ascended the throne following him.

ケネス・マカルピン(中世ゲール語: シナド・マック・アイルピン、現代スコットランド・ゲール語: コインネッハ・マック・アイルペイン、810年 – 858年2月13日)またはケネス1世は、ダール・リアダの王(841-850年)、ピクトの王(843-858年)、おそらくゲール系の初代アルバの王(843-858年)であった。彼は、アルピニド朝の創設者である父アルピン・マック・エハダックからダール・リアダの王位を継承した。ケネス1世は843-850年にピクトの王国を征服し、スコットランド全土を支配し、ピクトを同化するキャンペーンを始めた。これにより彼は死後、「征服者」と呼ばれるようになった。彼はストラスクライド王国のブリトン人とスカンディナヴィアからの侵略バイキングと戦った。フォルテヴィオットは彼の王国の首都となり、ケネスはスコーンの石を含む遺物を放棄されたアイオナの修道院から新しい領域に移した。ケネス1世は伝統的にスコットランドの創設者と見なされており、当時はアルバとして知られていたが、彼の直接の後継者のように、ピクトの王の称号を持っていた。ある年代記ではケネスを最初のスコットランドの法律制定者と呼んでいるが、彼が制定した法律についての情報はない。





  • 初期の年: ケネス・マカルピンは約810年にイオナ島で生まれたとされ、父の死後、ダール・リアダの王になりました。彼の即位は840または841年ごろです。

  • ピクトランドの征服: ケネスはピクト族を打ち破り、16年間統治しました。彼は842または843年から858年までピクトの王だった可能性があります。

  • 地政学的な課題: 9世紀のダール・リアダは山がちで移動が困難でした。ヴァイキングの襲撃がありました。これがピクト攻撃の原因かもしれません。

  • ピクトの王: エオガナン・マック・オエングサの死後、ウラッドとブライディ6世がピクトの王になりました。ピクト王国は849または850年に滅びました。ケネスはピクトの指導者を殺害したかもしれません。

  • アルバの王: ピクトを併合後、ケネスは新しい王国アルバを形成しました(後にスコットランド)。彼は後の記録で最初のスコットランド王とされていますが、統一は後に起こったとされています。

  • 移住と同化: スコット人はピクト地域へ移動しました。ケネスは宗教的な遺物をダンケルドへ、スクーンの石をスクーンへ移動しました。スコット人はピクト族を同化させました。

  • 軍事行動: ケネスはロージアンを6回侵攻し、ストラスクライドとヴァイキングから攻撃を受けました。

  • 王室の結婚: 彼は隣国の王たちと娘たちを結婚させました。

  • 死と継承: ケネスは858年にフォーテヴィオットで死亡しました。彼の後を兄のドナルド1世が継ぎ、その後息子たちが継承しました。アルピン朝がこの時期に成立しました

…キナード(Cináed)は、アルピン(Alpín)の息子、エオチャイド(Eochaid)の孫、アード・フィンド(Áed Find)の曾孫、ドマンガート(Domangart)の玄孫、ドナル・ブレック(Domnall Brecc)の来孫、エオチャイド・ブイデ(Eochaid Buide)の玄々孫、アーダン(Áedán)の玄々々孫、ガブラーン(Gabrán)の玄々々々孫、ドマンガート(Domangart)の玄々々々々孫、ファーガス・モール(Fergus Mór)の玄々々々々々孫です.
Illustration of the Stone of Scone in the Coronation Chair at Westminster Abbey, 1855
Kenneth MacAlpin is thought to have been born circa 810 on the Isle of Iona, now a part of contemporary Scotland. Following his father’s demise, Kenneth ascended the throne as the ruler of Dál Riada. His coronation occurred around 840 or 841. A key historical source for Kenneth’s life is the 10th-century Chronicle of the Kings of Alba, detailing the rule of Scottish monarchs from Kenneth I to Kenneth II, who reigned from 971 to 995. 
Conquest of PictS
The Chronicle of the Kings of Alba notes that during the second year of his reign in Dál Riada, Kenneth ventured into Pictish territory and, after defeating them, ruled there for 16 years. The 15th-century Annals of Ulster record Kenneth as King of the Picts from 842 or 843 until his death in 858. While some sources suggest his rule over the Picts spanned from 841 to 856, the Chronicle of Melrose dates his kingship to 843, a year widely accepted by contemporary historians.
In the early 9th century, Dál Riada’s situation was challenging. Its terrain was mountainous and difficult, lying between the powerful Kingdom of Strathclyde to the south and the Druim Alban mountains to the east. With its infertile lands and loss of the Hebrides to Viking settlers, these harsh conditions might have compelled Kenneth to confront the Picts.
Following Eóganan mac Óengusa’s death in 839, Uurad and then Bridei VI succeeded as Pictish kings. Sources vary on their reigns: one list states Uurad ruled for three years and Brude VI for one, another suggests Uurad’s rule lasted two years and Bridei VI’s a month. The fall of the Pictish kingdom is dated around 849 or 850, with some sources suggesting the unification of the Pictish and Scottish kingdoms in 850. The last Pictish king is said to have been killed at Forteviot or Scone, possibly alluding to MacAlpin’s treason, a legend recorded by Giraldus Cambrensis in the 12th century, involving the treacherous killing of a Pictish noble at a meeting in Scone.
Details of Kenneth’s conquest of Pictavia are scarce. No chronicle explicitly mentions his claim to the Pictish crown, but modern historians propose his Pictish lineage through his mother or marital connections. Post-Eóganan’s death, the Chronicle of Huntingdon describes Kenneth, or Kynadius, assuming his father Alpin’s kingdom. In 839, amid Danish raids on Pictish territories, Kenneth reportedly defeated the Picts, compelling their retreat, and became the first Scottish king to rule over all of Alban.
King of Alba
Following Kenneth’s conquest of the Pictish kingdom, historical tradition holds that a new kingdom emerged, initially called Alba in Gaelic. This name evolved into Scotia and eventually Scotland. The early rulers were titled Kings of Alba. Although later royal lists designate Kenneth as the first King of Scotland, modern historians assert that the complete unification occurred about fifty years after Kenneth, emphasizing his establishment of a new ruling dynasty aimed at dominating Scotland. This dynasty played a crucial role in assimilating the Picts, leading to the rapid disappearance of their language and cultural institutions.
Post-conquest, there was significant migration of Scots from Dál Riada into Pictish territories. The cessation of the Pictish and Dál Riada kings lists around 850 suggests the end of these titles. Kenneth I relocated his administration to Pictavia, possibly influenced by prior Scottish settlements in the region and choosing Scone as the capital. In 848 or 849, he transferred relics from an Iona abbey, plagued by Viking raids, to Dunkeld, the ecclesiastical center of Scotland, according to The Chronicle of the Kings of Alba. The famed Stone of Scone was also moved from Iona to Scone. Archaeological findings indicate Forteviot’s role as a royal residence, but it faded from chronicles post-Donald I’s death. The eastward migration of Scots likely accelerated Pictish assimilation. Despite late 9th-century Irish annals mentioning the King of the Picts, Pictish independence was likely nominal. Pictish civil and ecclesiastical systems were supplanted by Scottish laws, with probable similar transformations in other societal aspects, unopposed by the Picts. 
The Chronicle of the Kings of Alba details Kenneth’s reign without specific dates. He launched six invasions into Northumbria’s Lothian, capturing and destroying Melrose and Dunbar. Celtic Britons from Strathclyde attacked and burnt Dunblane, while Vikings raided Pictavia, devastating areas from Clunie to Dunkeld.Kenneth consolidated power through strategic royal marriages, aligning his daughters with the kings of Strathclyde and Ireland. The Chronicle of Melrose credits Kenneth as an early Scottish lawgiver, though his legal contributions have not survived into the 21st century.
According to the Annals of Ulster, Kenneth passed away in 858. The Chronicle of the Kings of Alba records his death in February at Forteviot, attributing it to a tumour. Historians have speculated that this date might be February 13th. Kenneth was interred at Iona Abbey. The kingdom’s succession followed the tanistry system, leading to Kenneth’s brother Donald I succeeding him, rather than his eldest son. Following Donald I’s demise, Kenneth’s sons, Causantín mac Cináeda and Áed mac Cináeda, ascended the throne. This period marked the formation of the Alpínid dynasty, which governed Scotland until the early 11th century.
Contemporary Irish annals bestow upon Kenneth and his immediate successors the title King of the Picts. However, they do not refer to him as the King of Fortriu, a designation exclusively used for four Pictish kings from the 7th to 9th centuries. This usage of the title King of the Picts likely refers to Kenneth and his immediate successors’ claim over the entirety of Pictavia, although evidence detailing the full scope of their rule is scant.
「アルスター年代記」によると、ケネスは858年に亡くなりました。「アルバの王の年代記」は彼がフォーティヴィオットで2月に腫瘍により亡くなったと記しています。歴史家たちはこの日付が2月13日である可能性を示唆しています。ケネスはアイオナ修道院に埋葬されました。王国の後継はタナストリー制度に従って行われたため、ケネスの後継者は彼の長男ではなく弟のドナルド1世となりました。ドナルド1世の死後、ケネスの息子たち、コンスタンティン・マク・キナード(Causantín mac Cináeda)とエード・マク・キナード(Áed mac Cináeda)が王位を継承しました。この時期に、11世紀初頭までスコットランドを支配したアルピニッド王朝が形成されました。同時代のアイルランド年代記はケネスとその直接の後継者たちをピクトの王と呼んでいますが、フォートリウの王という称号は7世紀から9世紀にかけて統治した4人のピクト王にのみ与えられたもので、ケネスには使われていません。ピクトの王の称号の使用は、ケネスとその直接の後継者たちがピクタヴィア全域に対する主張を示すものだったと考えられますが、彼らの支配領域の広がりを示す証拠はほとんどありません。


December – 2023 15 MINS READ
Exploring the Hidden History and Culture of the Ancient Picts of Scotland: From the Meaning Behind Their Tattoos to Their Lost Language and Mysterious Stone Carvings – A Journey into the Lives, Beliefs, and Enigmatic Monuments and Art Left by the Picts. Unraveling Their Connections with the Celts and Their Conflicts with the Roman Empire, and Examining How the Legacy of the Picts Influences Modern Scotland. Understanding the entire formation of the Kingdom of Scotland is essential before discussing “tartan,” a symbol deeply intertwined with Scottish identity and heritage.
古代スコットランドの神秘的な部族、ピクト人の隠された歴史と文化の探求します。 刺青の意味から失われた言語、神秘的な石彫りまで、ピクト人の生活、信仰、そして彼らが遺した謎に満ちた遺跡と芸術の探求。ケルト人との関係とローマ帝国との抗争の歴史を解き明かし、ピクト人の遺産が現代スコットランドにどのように影響を与えているのかを考察します。この全体のスコットランド王国の成立を理解しておかないと”タータン”について我々は語ることはできません。