Poplin or Broad ?

January – 2024 30 MINS READ
In the UK, it’s referred to as poplin, while in the US, the same fabric is known as broadcloth. This intriguing discrepancy in naming reflects the cultural variations within the textile industry. Known for its high quality and refined appearance, this finely and tightly woven fabric is widely used in crafting elegant shirts. Poplin, or broadcloth, began its journey in medieval Europe as a luxury silk fabric, evolving over the centuries to become predominantly cotton-based. In this feature, we will explore the rich and intricate history of this fabric, its historical evolution, unique characteristics, and the reasons behind its differing names across countries. 

Poplin, also known as tabinet or tabbinet, is a distinctive fabric made from wool, cotton, or silk, characterized by its vertical warp and horizontal weft. This fabric has evolved over time, now commonly signifying a robust, plain weave material from any fiber or blend, often featuring crosswise ribs for a cord-like texture.

Historically, poplin was crafted with a silk warp and a worsted yarn weft. This combination resulted in a fabric with a ribbed texture, similar to rep, enhancing the silky surface with depth and a plush feel. The ribs extend across the fabric’s width from edge to edge. Notably, in Britain, woolen yarn from Suffolk’s spinners was combined with silk in Dublin to produce tabinet.

Modern poplin is versatile, made from wool, cotton, silk, rayon, polyester, or blends thereof. Its simple under/over weave presents a smooth surface, especially when made with weft and warp threads of identical material and size. This makes poplin shirts particularly easy to iron and resistant to wrinkles. Poplin’s utility extends beyond clothing to luxurious upholstery, often utilizing coarser filling-yarns in a sturdy weave for added texture.



The name “poplin” is believed to have originated from papelino, a 15th-century fabric from Avignon, France, named after the papal residence there. It’s also linked to the French term papeline, a silk fabric from the same era. Another theory traces poplin’s roots to the cloth industry in Poperinge, Flanders, now part of Belgium. Previously, up until the 20th century, poplin’s primary use was in creating dresses from silk, cotton, or heavy-weight wool, particularly suitable for winter garments.
Originally, poplin referred to a fabric with a silk warp and worsted weft, featuring a corded surface. This fabric emerged in the 16th century in Avignon, a city on the Rhone River in southeastern France, known as the “papal city.” From 1309 to 1377, Avignon was the popes’ seat and remained under papal control until France annexed it in 1791. The region’s prominent fabric, termed ‘papalino’ in Italian (or ‘papalina’ for the feminine form), translates to “papal” or “related to the pope.” In French, this evolved from ‘popaline’ to ‘popeline.’ Around 1700, the English abbreviated the term to poplin. Over time, poplin came to describe various corded fabrics used in women’s dressmaking. after that , Ireland is a primary producer of modern poplin. Since around 1860, a wool or linen fabric mimicking poplin has been known as poplinette.
*Author’s note I have been unable to find any documentation that poplin was originally a silk and wool vertically striped fabric. If anyone knows anything about this, please let me know.(I found V&A.But They made after french revolution. They are poplin? or not ?)
*筆者注釈 ポプリンが元々シルクとウールの畝の生地という資料が見つかりませんでした。この件についてご存知の方がいたら教えてください。(V&Aでは見つけました) 
Provencal fabrics – From India to AVIGNON

The Provencal fabrics, known for reflecting the sunny and vibrant colors of Southern France, have an interesting history that intertwines with global trade and cultural exchange. Initially, these textiles didn’t come from Provence but were introduced from India and Persia in the early 17th century. The colorful printed fabrics, first imported via Marseille, became a sensation despite their high cost. Known as ‘Indiennes’, their popularity spread rapidly across France, creating a demand that imports couldn’t satisfy.

Recognizing the commercial potential, Jean-Baptiste Colbert, the Finance Minister under King Louis XIV, founded the Compagnie Francaise des Indes Occidentales (East India Company) in 1664. He also brought Armenian dyers and fabric makers to France to share their expertise with local artisans. However, this craze for Indiennes led to the decline of the traditional French silk and wool industries, prompting a ban on both the import and production of Indiennes in 1686. This ban inadvertently boosted smuggling.

Indienne, also known as ‘that which comes from Eastern India’, was a popular type of printed or painted textile produced in Europe, particularly between the 17th and 19th centuries. These textiles were inspired by similar fabrics originally made in India, which is reflected in their name. In France, they were also known by various other names like madras, pékin (meaning Peking), perse (Persia), gougouran, damas, and cirsacs. The original Indian technique for textile printing was complex, involving the use of mordants or metallic salts to fix the dyes. The vibrant colors of these textiles were often derived from natural sources such as the garance plant for red, indigo for blue, and gaude for yellow.Indiennes gained immense popularity, leading to attempts at import substitution. In 1640, Armenian merchants introduced Indian textile printing techniques in Marseilles, France. This technique was later adopted by England in 1670 and Holland in 1678.
However, the importation and production of indiennes in France were prohibited in 1686 by a Royal Ordinance to protect the local woolen and silk cloth industries. Despite the prohibition, production of indiennes continued locally and was eventually legalized again in 1759. Marseille emerged as the main center for the manufacture of indienne in France.
Musée national Zurich

The manufacturers, adapting to the ban, moved their operations to Avignon, then under the Vatican’s jurisdiction, not France’s. There, they hired Jean Althen, an Armenian dyer, who introduced the use of the red madder dye known as garance. The artisans in Avignon quickly mastered new production techniques, including card printing on fabric. The ban on Indiennes was eventually lifted in 1759, leading to a resurgence in their popularity.

Provencal weavers began adapting traditional Indian designs to local tastes, evolving what we now recognize as the classic Provencal style. This style, inspired by the natural landscapes of Provence – the purple of lavender fields, the silver-green of olive groves, the yellow of sunflowers and mimosas, and the rich ocher and crimson of Roussillon’s soil – became emblematic of the region. Each area in Provence, like Manosque, Carpentras, and Lubéron, contributed its distinct patterns and styles. Some fabrics even bear the names of individual weavers, such as Marius or Orane.

Jean-Baptiste Colbert

Jean-Baptiste Colbert, an influential figure in French history, served as the First Minister of State from 1661 until his death in 1683 during King Louis XIV’s reign. His legacy, known as Colbertism, is a significant contribution to the mercantilist economic doctrine and has had a lasting impact on France’s political and economic organization.

Born in Reims, Colbert’s career took a significant turn when he was appointed the Intendant of Finances on May 4, 1661. Following Nicolas Fouquet’s arrest for embezzlement, Colbert stepped into the newly created role of Controller-General of Finances, marking the end of the Superintendent of Finances office. He was instrumental in developing France’s domestic economy, notably by increasing tariffs and promoting large-scale public works. Additionally, he played a key role in ensuring the French East India Company’s access to international markets, facilitating the import of essential goods such as coffee, cotton, dyewoods, fur, pepper, and sugar.

Colbert’s policies were geared towards creating a favorable trade balance and expanding France’s colonial possessions. In 1682, he initiated a project that led to the establishment of the Code Noir in 1685, two years posthumously, to regulate slavery in the colonies. He also founded France’s merchant navy and became Secretary of State of the Navy in 1669.

His market reforms were substantial, including the establishment of the Manufacture royale de glaces de miroirs in 1665 to end the importation of Venetian glass. Once the national glass manufacturing industry stabilized, the import of Venetian glass was prohibited in 1672. Colbert also boosted the Flemish cloth manufacturing expertise in France, founding royal tapestry workshops at Gobelins and supporting those at Beauvais. He issued over 150 edicts to regulate guilds and was a key figure in founding the Académie des Sciences in 1666. A member of the Académie française from March 1, 1667, until his death, he was succeeded in the 24th seat by Jean de La Fontaine. His son, Jean-Baptiste Colbert, Marquis de Seignelay, followed in his footsteps as Navy Secretary.

プロヴァンスの生地 – インドからアヴィニョンへ

インディエンヌ(発音: /ˌændiˈɛn/, アンディエン;フランス語: [ɛ̃.djɛn]、「東インドから来たもの」の意)は、17世紀から19世紀にかけてヨーロッパで製造された、印刷または描画された織物の一種で、もともとインドで作られた類似の織物に触発されていました(そのためこの名前が付けられました)。フランスでは、マドラス、ペキン(北京の意)、ペルス(ペルシャの意)、ググラン、ダマス、シルサクスなど、さまざまな名前でも呼ばれていました。織物の印刷に使われる元のインドの技術は、染料を定着させるためにモルダントや金属塩を使用する長く複雑な工程を必要としました。美しい鮮やかな色は、赤色にはガランス植物、青色にはインディゴ、黄色にはガウデを使用していました。







Avignon, known in French as [aviɲɔ̃] and Provençal as Avinhon (Classical norm) or Avignoun (Mistralian norm), with the Latin name Avenio, serves as the administrative center of the Vaucluse department in the Provence-Alpes-Côte d’Azur region in southeastern France. Situated on the left bank of the Rhône River, Avignon had a population of 93,671 as of the 2017 census. The historic town center, surrounded by medieval walls, is home to approximately 16,000 people, as estimated by Avignon’s municipal services. It ranks as the 35th-largest metropolitan area in France, according to INSEE, with 337,039 inhabitants (2020), and the 13th-largest urban unit with 459,533 inhabitants (2020). Notably, its urban area experienced the most rapid growth in France from 1999 to 2010, with a 76% increase in population and a 136% expansion in area. The Communauté d’agglomération du Grand Avignon, comprising 16 communes, had a population of 197,102 in 2022.

From 1309 to 1377, Avignon was a pivotal location during the Avignon Papacy, hosting seven successive popes. In 1348, Pope Clement VI acquired the town from Joanna I of Naples. The city remained under papal control until 1791 when it was incorporated into France amid the French Revolution. Today, Avignon is not only the capital of the Vaucluse department but also notable for being one of the few French cities that have preserved its city walls, earning it the nickname ‘La Cité des Papes’ (The City-State of Popes).

Avignon’s historic center, encompassing the Palais des Papes, the cathedral, and the Pont d’Avignon, was designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1995 due to its significant architecture and historical relevance in the 14th and 15th centuries. The city is a prominent tourist destination, famed for its medieval monuments and the annual Festival d’Avignon (or “Avignon Festival”) along with its companion, the Festival Off Avignon—one of the world’s largest performing arts festivals.

Avignon Bridge with Popes Palace and Rhone river, Provence




Background of the Avignon Papacy
The Avignon Papacy, a pivotal chapter in the history of the Catholic Church, spanned from 1309 to 1376. This era’s onset was rooted in the growing discord between the Papacy and the French Crown, a situation that escalated particularly after the intense confrontations between Pope Boniface VIII and King Philip IV of France. The tension was a culmination of political and territorial disputes, reflecting the broader struggle for power between the Church and European monarchies.
The commencement of the Avignon Papacy was marked by the election of Pope Clement V in 1305. A Frenchman, Clement V’s close ties with King Philip heavily influenced his papal decisions. His notable refusal to relocate to Rome was a significant departure from tradition. In 1309, he established his court in Avignon, France, thereby initiating a 67-year period during which the papal seat was effectively moved out of Rome. This decision was not just a geographical shift but also symbolized a major realignment of the Church’s power dynamics.
The term “Babylonian captivity of the Papacy” was coined to describe this period, drawing an allegorical parallel to the exile of Jews in Babylon as recounted in the Bible. This metaphorical captivity implied that the Papacy, traditionally an independent sovereign authority, was now perceived as being under the undue influence of the French monarchy. This era is often criticized for the way it seemed to compromise the spiritual independence and authority of the Papacy in favor of political expediency.
Reign of the French Popes
Throughout the Avignon Papacy, each pope was of French origin, underscoring the French Crown’s influence over the Papacy. This line of French popes included Clement V, John XXII, Benedict XII, Clement VI, Innocent VI, Urban V, and Gregory XI. Their tenures were marked not just by their nationality but also by significant changes in the administration of the Church. There was an evident shift towards the centralization of church administration and an increase in the Church’s temporal power and wealth, often leading to allegations of corruption and moral decay within the Church hierarchy. The Avignon Papacy came to a critical juncture when Pope Gregory XI decided to return the papal court to Rome in 1376. His death in 1378 precipitated a schism within the Church, a rift that was deepened by the election of Urban VI and the resultant division among the cardinals. This schism led to the establishment of a second line of popes in Avignon, regarded as antipopes, who were deemed illegitimate by the wider Church. The schism was a period of significant turmoil and confusion, undermining the Church’s unity and authority, and lasted until the Council of Constance in 1417, which resolved the crisis.
Impact on the Church and Legacy
The Avignon Papacy had profound and lasting impacts on the Catholic Church. It led to significant changes in Church governance, including the accumulation of wealth and instances of corruption within the Church hierarchy. The intertwining of the Church with secular matters, particularly the interests of the French monarchy, marked a significant shift in the Church’s role and perception. The relocation of the papacy back to Rome under Gregory XI was a complex process that did not immediately resolve the Church’s political and spiritual challenges. The Western Schism that followed further weakened the papacy’s authority, paving the way for future reform movements within the Church, including the Protestant Reformation. The Avignon Papacy’s legacy is complex and often viewed through the lens of the papacy being subjugated to secular influences, especially those of the French Crown, highlighting a period in Church history where the need for reform and the restoration of spiritual integrity became increasingly apparent.
The Papal palace in Avignon, France
Avignon Bridge with Popes Palace and Rhone river, Provence
sericulture in Europe
According to the account by Procopius, it wasn’t until 552 AD that the Byzantine Emperor Justinian acquired the first silkworm eggs. He had dispatched two Nestorian monks to Central Asia, who managed to secretly bring silkworm eggs back to him, concealed inside bamboo rods. Under the monks’ care, the eggs hatched, and although they didn’t cocoon before arriving, the Byzantine church’s manufacturing facilities were able to start producing silk fabrics for the emperor. This initiative was aimed at developing a substantial silk industry in the Eastern Roman Empire, drawing on knowledge acquired from the Sassanids. These church-run factories had a legal monopoly on the fabric, but the empire continued to import silk from other major Mediterranean cities.
The spread of sericulture in the Mediterranean was significantly influenced by the Arabs, who introduced silk production to North Africa, Andalusia, Sicily, and Calabria in Southern Italy, which was under Byzantine control. André Guillou notes that mulberry trees, essential for silk production, were introduced to Southern Italy by the Byzantines in the late 9th century. By 1050, the region of Calabria had cultivated 24,000 mulberry trees, with further growth ongoing. The interactions between Byzantine and Muslim silk-weaving centers led to a mix of quality levels and imitations from various cities like Andalusia and Lucca, complicating the identification and dating of rare surviving silk pieces.
Catanzaro in Calabria was the first Italian center to introduce silk production, between the 9th and 11th centuries. Over time, Catanzaro’s silk supplied almost all of Europe and was traded at a large market fair in Reggio Calabria. The city became renowned for its exquisite silk, velvets, damasks, and brocades, and was known as the lace capital of Europe. It housed a significant silkworm breeding facility, producing all the laces and linens used in the Vatican. At one point, silk made in Calabria accounted for half of Italy’s entire silk production. Due to the difficulty in cultivating mulberry trees in Northern and Continental Europe, merchants and producers often bought raw materials from Calabria to finish their products.
Despite losing their monopoly, the Chinese re-established themselves as significant silk suppliers during the Tang and Song dynasties, industrializing their production. China continued to export high-quality fabric along the Silk Road, but silk production techniques began spreading across Western Europe following the Crusades. In 1147, during the Second Crusade, Norman King Roger II of Sicily attacked Byzantine silk centers, Corinth and Thebes, capturing their infrastructure and deporting workers to Palermo and Calabria, thus bolstering the Norman silk industry. The 1204 sack of Constantinople by the Fourth Crusade led to the decline of its silk industry, with many artisans leaving the city. Italy developed a large domestic silk industry after 2,000 skilled weavers arrived from Constantinople, with many settling in Avignon to serve the Avignon popes.
The silk industry in Lucca, Italy, boomed due to settlement from Sicily, Jewish, Greek, and other immigrants, leading to a decline in the import of Chinese styles and an increase in local production to meet bourgeois demand for luxury fabrics. By 1472, Florence alone had 84 workshops and at least 7,000 craftsmen. In 1519, Emperor Charles V recognized Catanzaro’s industry growth, allowing it to establish a silk craft consulate. By 1660, Catanzaro’s industry supported 1,000 looms and employed at least 5,000 people, exporting silk to various European countries.
Luxury Silks from Italy to France
During the High Middle Ages (1000–1250 AD), silk production continued using established techniques without significant changes in materials or tools. However, between the 10th and 12th centuries, minor adjustments began to emerge, leading to more substantial and innovative changes in the 13th century. These innovations resulted in the creation of new types of fabrics. Additionally, more commonplace fabrics made of hemp and cotton also evolved. Despite this, silk remained a rare and costly material. Improved technology led to the development of Byzantine magnaneries (silk-rearing facilities) in Greece and Syria (6th to 8th centuries) and silk production centers in Calabria, as well as Arab-run centers in Sicily and Spain (8th to 10th centuries), significantly increasing the supply of this luxury material.
The 13th century witnessed enhancements in the evolving technology of silk production. Similar to the Industrial Revolution in late 18th-century England, these advancements in silk production likely coincided with broader technological progress in society. At the beginning of the 13th century, a basic form of milling silk yarns was in use, as depicted in Jean de Garlande’s 1221 dictionary and Étienne Boileau’s 1261 Livre des métiers (Tradesman’s Handbook), which illustrated various types of machinery, likely early versions of doubling machines. This technology was further refined in Bologna between 1270 and 1280. Complex weaving machinery began to be mentioned in documents from the early 14th century. Various depictions of fabric production techniques from this era can be found, with the oldest surviving image of a European spinning wheel appearing in a stained glass panel in the Cathedral of Chartres. This period also saw the appearance of bobbins and warping machines in the stained glass of Chartres and in a fresco in the Cologne Kunkelhaus (circa 1300). The toothed warping machine, possibly a creation of the silk industry, allowed for longer warps and more uniformity in cloth.
By the late 14th century, likely influenced by the devastation of the Black Death, there was a shift toward less costly production methods. Techniques that were previously forbidden by guilds for producing low-quality goods, like using inferior wool and carding, became more common. The silk industry saw an increase in the use of water-powered mills. Drawloom technology was introduced to France in the latter half of the 15th century by an Italian weaver from Calabria, known as Jean le Calabrais, who was invited to Lyon by Louis XI. He introduced a new machine that could work yarns faster and with greater precision. Throughout the century, further improvements were made to the loom.
French Silk Industry

Italian silk fabric, known for its high quality, was costly due to the expensive raw materials and intricate production methods. This silk struggled to meet the evolving demands of French fashion, which leaned towards lighter, more affordable materials. Although Italian silk remained highly valued for furnishings and its vibrant dyes, local production of alternative textiles began.

Italian city-states like Venice, Florence, and Lucca, renowned for luxury textiles, inspired Lyon’s rise as a silk hub in France. In 1466, King Louis XI aimed to establish a national silk industry in Lyon, bringing in many Italian artisans, especially from Calabria. The renowned weavers of Catanzaro were even invited to Lyon to share their weaving techniques. Jean Le Calabrais introduced the drawloom in France during this period.

Despite protests from Lyon’s residents, Louis XI initially shifted silk production to Tours, though it remained a minor industry there. His goal was to lessen France’s hefty trade deficit with Italy, which was costing 400,000 to 500,000 golden écus annually. Around 1535, under Francis I, Lyon’s silk trade was invigorated by a royal charter granted to merchants Étienne Turquet and Barthélemy Naris. In 1540, Lyon received exclusive rights to silk production, eventually emerging as the European silk trade’s epicenter and known for its esteemed fashions from the 16th century onwards.

Lyon’s silk industry began creating unique designs, moving away from traditional Oriental styles and incorporating landscape motifs. By the mid-17th century, the industry was booming with over 14,000 looms in operation, supporting a third of Lyon’s populace.



Silk in Lyon 
Lyon, from the late 15th century, emerged as a significant trading center in France, dealing in a variety of goods like spices, knives, and weapons, but most notably silk. Silk significantly contributed to the economic development of Lyon. Established in 1466 with the founding of the first silk manufacturing facility by Louis XI of France, the demand for luxurious silk products by the French nobility propelled Lyon to become a leading global silk producer. In 1540, King Francois I granted Lyon a monopoly on silk manufacturing, ensuring that all silk goods produced in Italy or Asia along the Silk Roads had to pass through Lyon. By the 17th century, Lyon boasted over 10,000 silk looms, affirming its status as a premier center for silk weaving. In 1667, Jean-Baptiste Colbert, the finance superintendent under Louis XIV, implemented quality controls and worker tariffs in silk production. These measures contributed to Lyon’s ascendancy as the world’s silk capital in the late 17th century. The 1801 invention of the mechanical loom by Joseph Marie Jacquard revolutionized silk production, leading to its rapid industrialization.
The 1685 Edict of Fontainebleau, which revoked the 1598 Edict of Nantes, caused the Calvinist Protestants, known as Huguenots, to flee France to avoid religious persecution. Many of these Huguenots were skilled in silk manufacturing, and their exodus led to a significant decline in silk production. Nonetheless, they contributed to the development of silk industries in Germany, Great Britain, Italy, the Netherlands, and Switzerland. The end of Louis XIV’s reign also negatively impacted Lyon’s silk industries, marking an era of war and poverty. The lack of royal commissions and a struggling nation led to a steep decline in silk demand, severely affecting the industry. The French Revolution was particularly devastating; as skilled laborers were executed or fled, Lyon’s silk industry suffered immensely. Most of the city’s silk designs and samples were destroyed, erasing centuries of history. The workforce for silk production dwindled by nearly 90%, further hindering the industry’s recovery.
The 18th and 19th centuries saw a sericulture surge in Provence, lasting until World War I. Silk from this region was predominantly sent to Lyon. Towns like Viens and La Bastide-des-Jourdans in Luberon thrived on mulberry plantations, now a thing of the past. However, silk centers remain active today. The domestic system, involving home-based silk spinning and treatment, employed many and boosted the working class’s income.
The 1685 Edict of Fontainebleau, which revoked the 1598 Edict of Nantes
Louis XIV signing the Revocation of the Edict of Nantes
The Industrial Revolution

The Industrial Revolution’s onset was marked by a significant surge in the textile industry, led by Great Britain’s cotton sector. This period saw remarkable technological advancements, although they varied across different stages of fabric production, driving further complementary innovations. For instance, spinning technology advanced much more rapidly than weaving. Unlike other textiles, the silk industry didn’t benefit from these spinning innovations, as silk weaving didn’t require pre-spinning. Moreover, producing silver and gold silk brocades was a highly intricate process, with each color needing its own shuttle. The 17th and 18th centuries saw efforts towards simplifying and standardizing silk manufacturing, with many subsequent advancements. In 1775, the punched card loom by Bouchon and Falcon emerged, later refined by Jacques de Vaucanson. Joseph-Marie Jacquard further enhanced these designs, introducing the groundbreaking Jacquard loom. This loom used a series of punched cards processed mechanically in sequence, a precursor to modern computer programmability. These punched cards were later adopted in computing, remaining prevalent until the 1970s. From 1801, thanks to the Jacquard loom, embroidery-like designs became highly mechanized, enabling mass production of complex patterns.

The Jacquard loom faced initial backlash from workers fearing unemployment but soon became essential in the industry. Declared public property in 1806, Jacquard received a pension and royalties for each loom. By 1834, Lyon alone had 2,885 Jacquard looms. The 1831 Canut revolt in Lyon, sparked by worker discontent, preluded larger uprisings during the Industrial Revolution, culminating in a bloody military repression.

The European silk industry began to decline due to the emergence of silkworm diseases in 1845, leading to an epidemic. Diseases like pébrine (Nosema bombycis), grasserie (a virus), flacherie (from infected mulberry leaves), and white muscardine disease (Beauveria bassiana) devastated the industry. The epidemic, initially affecting silkworms, eventually spread to mulberry trees. Jean-Baptiste Dumas, the French agriculture minister, tasked Louis Pasteur in 1865 to study these diseases. After years of research, measures were implemented under Pasteur’s guidance, leading to a decline in the epidemic.

However, the rising cost of silkworm cocoons and a shift in bourgeois fashion trends in the 19th century led to the silk industry’s decline in Europe. The 1869 opening of the Suez Canal and a silk shortage in France made importing Asian silk, especially from China and Japan, more affordable. During the Long Depression (1873–1896), Lyon’s silk production fully industrialized, phasing out handlooms. The 19th century also saw advances in chemistry influencing the textile industry. The synthesis of aniline led to the creation of mauveine (aniline purple) dye and synthetic indigo. In 1884, Count Hilaire de Chardonnet invented viscose, an artificial silk, and opened a factory in 1891 for its production. Viscose, cheaper than natural silk, partially replaced it in various applications.



August – 2023  30 MINS READ
We tend to focus on ‘invention’ and ‘population’ when talking about the Industrial Revolution. But we must know that history does not happen from those dots, but from a number of multiple factors. We will discuss the most important ‘invention’ in final chapter. Before that, let’s get to know the historical background that happened around it and follow the history of why the Industrial Revolution was able to become a thing in the UK.Understanding the entire formation of the Kingdom of Scotland is essential before discussing “tartan,” a symbol deeply intertwined with Scottish identity and heritage.
REAL broadcloth
Broadcloth is a thick, plain weave fabric traditionally made from wool. Its key feature is that it’s initially woven much wider than its final width (often 50 to 75% wider) and then heavily milled. This milling, historically done using heavy wooden trip hammers in hot, soapy water, shrinks the fabric to its desired width. This milling draws the yarns closer than possible on the loom, allowing the wool fibers to bond through a felting process. The result is a dense, opaque fabric with a rigid drape, highly resistant to weather and wear, and able to maintain a clean cut edge without hemming.
This manufacturing method began in Flanders. Similar fabrics were also produced in Leiden and parts of England at the end of the medieval era. The primary material was short-staple wool, which was carded, spun into yarn, and then woven on a broad loom to create a cloth about 1.75 yards wide. The cloth was then fulled, typically in a fulling mill, which made the fibers felt together, resulting in a smooth surface.
Broadcloth, also known as Flemish Laken, originated in the Duchy of Brabant (present-day Flanders) from the 11th century and was a prominent fabric throughout the medieval era. Post-1400, Leiden in Holland (now the Netherlands) emerged as Europe’s leading center for broadcloth manufacturing, marking the industry’s transition to industrialization. Production was no longer confined to a single factory but was divided into specialized tasks across multiple stages, with strict supervision ensuring consistent high quality. This made Leiden’s broadcloth highly sought after, leading the Hanseatic League in 1417 to decree that only Leiden-approved broadcloth could be sold. However, by 1500, competition from other European regions, notably England, diminished Leiden’s dominance. Italy, with Florence as a key player, also became significant in the broadcloth industry.
In England, around 1500, broadcloth production was widespread in regions such as Essex and Suffolk in southern East Anglia, the West Country Clothing District, Worcester, Coventry, Cranbrook in Kent, and other locations. This English broadcloth, largely exported to Antwerp by the Company of Merchant Adventurers of London as undyed cloth, was renowned for its quality. It was then finished and dyed in Flanders and sold throughout northern Europe.
The wool for Worcester’s broadcloth came from the Welsh border counties, known as Lemster wool, while the West Country’s wool originated from the Cotswolds. The high quality of this wool was attributed to the poor pastures and selective breeding, leading to wool with desirable characteristics.
English broadcloth exports peaked in the mid-16th century. Subsequently, some regions shifted to producing different types of cloth. The 17th century saw a decline in broadcloth production due to export challenges and the ill-fated Cockayne Project. Worcester continued to produce white broadcloth, and other regions like Ludlow and parts of the Cotswolds began making ‘Worcesters’ cloth. However, in the 18th century, the industry faced a significant downturn due to French competition affecting the Levant Company’s trade with Turkey, leading to a decrease in the prominence of broadcloth production.





Pastoral scene from a mid-thirteenth century French Bible.
The 11-13th centuries were a golden age for the medieval Flemish.
Between the 11th and 13th centuries, Flanders experienced a golden era, largely due to the skill of its weavers and the entrepreneurial spirit of its merchants. Flemish cloth, known for its exceptional quality, was highly sought after across Europe and beyond. This demand drew wealthy Italian and Spanish merchants and bankers to Flemish cities, significantly contributing to the development of Ghent and Ypres, and transforming Bruges into northern Europe’s busiest port. However, in the 14th century, this thriving industry began to stagnate, and by the early 15th century, it had dwindled significantly from its peak.
The Flemish cloth industry in the Middle Ages was notably influential. The region, referred to as Belgica by the Romans, was already recognized for its high-quality cloth, which was prized for making togas and stolas. In the early Middle Ages, Flanders primarily traded with partners along the North Sea and Baltic Sea, regions easily accessible by ship. There are records of Flemish cloth appearing in markets as far as Novgorod, Russia.
Several factors contributed to Flanders’ prominent position in the cloth industry. The Low Countries had a long-standing tradition of craftsmanship, especially within monasteries and abbeys. The relatively high population density in the region meant that residents often combined agriculture with other trades. Additionally, the Flemish terrain was particularly suitable for sheep farming, especially in the newly reclaimed polders.
As the cloth industry expanded, so did the towns of Bruges, Ghent, and Ypres, becoming hubs for the thriving trade. Rural weavers, spinners, and fullers flocked to these cities. A significant boost in productivity occurred in the 11th century with the transition from horizontal to vertical looms, which reportedly tripled worker efficiency.
In the early 12th century, Flemish cloth merchants began to explore southern Europe for new export markets. They participated in the Champagne fairs in France, which were quickly becoming Europe’s most important trade fairs. These fairs, held in Provins, Troyes, Bar-sur-Aube, and Lagny, formed a crucial commercial link between the Low Countries and Italy, then the two major trading centers in the world. The fairs operated in a cycle of six events, each lasting six weeks.
As Flanders’ textile production flourished, every cloth-producing town in the region established a presence in the cloth halls of Provins and Troyes. Here, their high-quality cloth quickly attracted the attention of Italian merchants. These merchants eagerly bought the Flemish cloth, transporting it back to Italian cities like Genoa, Milan, and Florence, and even further to the Middle East.
However, by the late 13th century, a conflict emerged between the King of France, who had recently annexed Champagne, and the Count of Flanders. This led to a ban on the sale of Flemish cloth at the Champagne fairs, threatening a significant economic blow to Flanders. Fortunately, the Italian merchants intervened. Utilizing their larger and more advanced galleys, they established a new maritime route. This route passed through the Straits of Gibraltar, along the French coast, directly to Flanders, ensuring continued trade and averting the economic crisis.
With the establishment of a regular galley service between Genoa and Bruges, the latter city quickly ascended to the status of a leading international port. Venice, initially slower to adapt, eventually launched a maritime service to Bruges by 1314, in addition to its traditional route over the Alps to the Low Countries. This was crucial, as Bruges had become the most significant European market north of the Alps. The influx of Italian merchants and bankers into Flanders was substantial, leading to the establishment of resident colonies. Their investments contributed significantly to the construction of numerous prestigious buildings in the region.
The cloth industry of Flanders in the Middle Ages was marked by remarkable prosperity. Emblematic of this wealth were the famous cloth halls, which served not only as trading hubs but also as symbols of status and prestige. Towns competed fiercely to construct the largest and most impressive cloth halls, reflecting their economic success.In Ghent, the impact of the cloth industry was profound, with almost two-thirds of its 65,000 inhabitants involved in the textile sector either directly or indirectly. The scale of Flemish drapery production at the time was so immense that it has been likened to an industrial revolution, only marginally less advanced than the one at the end of the 18th and beginning of the 19th centuries.




Anonymous of the Lombard-Venetian school, Tailor’s workshop miniature from the Vienna “Tacuinum Sanitatis” (Vindob. Ser. no. 2644), c. 1385. Vienna, National Library
Wool War
In the 1330s, wool emerged as a vital economic asset, underscored by the dealings of England’s King Edward III (reign: 1327-77) with Flanders (located in north-western France, Belgium, and parts of the Netherlands). Flanders’ merchant wealth was anchored in the extensive cloth production industry. This period saw a shift in fashion preferences among affluent Europeans: late 12th-century linen coats were increasingly replaced by more stylish woolen ones, a trend the Flemish adeptly exploited. Flanders, primarily a textile hub, lacked self-sufficiency in crucial sectors, especially food, relying heavily on imports from France. Another vital import was English wool, typically acquired via Italian and French intermediaries.
When Edward III’s claim to the French throne led to an aggressive campaign to seize it in 1337, Flanders faced a dilemma. Edward needed continental allies against France and the continuation of profitable wool exports to fund his war efforts, previously burdened by heavy taxes for military preparations. An alliance with France by Flanders would severely impact England’s finances. In August 1336, Edward tried to sway Flanders to his side by imposing a wool export embargo. This move led to the imprisonment of English merchants in Bruges the following month. However, facing significant economic threats, Flanders ultimately sided with England, formally recognizing Edward as the French King in Ghent in 1340.
This alliance initially seemed beneficial for Flanders, but ultimately, it was detrimental. The French eventually prevailed in the intermittent conflicts of the ‘Hundred Years War’ (1337-1453), a series of battles interspersed with truces lasting 116 years. By the end of the 15th century, England had overtaken Flanders in dominating cloth production and exports, significantly altering the economic landscape.
The 14th century
Broadcloth, also known as Flemish Laken, was first crafted in the Duchy of Brabant (present-day Flanders) starting from the 11th century and continued throughout the medieval era.Post-1400, the city of Leiden in Holland (modern-day Netherlands) emerged as the premier hub for the European broadcloth industry. It was here that production underwent industrialization, marking a shift from single-factory production to a more complex process involving specific task allocation and the creation of intermediate goods at various stages. This entire operation was meticulously monitored, ensuring a consistently high quality of Leiden broadcloth, which gained widespread popularity. In 1417, the Hanseatic League decreed that only certified broadcloth from Leiden was eligible for sale. However, beginning in 1500, increasing competition from other European regions, notably England, led to a decline in Leiden’s dominance in the broadcloth market. During this period, Florence in Italy rose to prominence as a key center for the broadcloth industry.
Around 1500, several English districts, including Essex, Suffolk in southern East Anglia, the West Country Clothing District (encompassing Gloucestershire, Wiltshire, east Somerset, and occasionally nearby areas), Worcester, Coventry, Cranbrook in Kent, and others, began producing broadcloth. This English cloth, renowned for its quality, was extensively exported, mainly to Antwerp, by the Company of Merchant Adventurers of London as white (undyed) cloth. It was subsequently finished and dyed in Flanders and marketed across northern Europe, available in lengths of either 24 or 30 yards.
The wool for Worcester’s broadcloth came from the Welsh border counties of Herefordshire and Shropshire, specifically known as Lemster (Leominster) wool, while the West Country’s supply originated from the Cotswolds. The superior quality of the wool was attributed to the relatively poor pastures, possibly enhanced by selective sheep breeding, producing wool with the desired properties.English broadcloth exports peaked in the mid-16th century. However, by the 17th century, production declined due to various challenges, including export market issues in the mid-1610s, currency problems in Eastern Europe, and the ill-fated Cockayne Project. Worcester continued to be a significant producer of white broadcloth, and other regions like Ludlow and parts of the Cotswolds began manufacturing similar fabrics, known as ‘Worcesters’. The 18th century witnessed a major market setback, particularly when the Levant Company’s trade with Turkey faced obstacles due to French competition, leading to the decline in broadcloth production’s significance.
  • Banat Wool Broadcloth: Originating from India, this is a type of woolen broadcloth.
  • Bridgwater (1450-1500): This lighter weight broadcloth was produced in England, Scotland, and Wales.
  • Castor: A woolen broadcloth heavy enough for overcoats.
  • Cealtar (Irish Gaelic): A thick, grey variety of broadcloth.
  • Dunster (early 14th century): A specific type of broadcloth made in Somerset.
  • Georgian Cloth (circa 1806): Named for the Georgian era in which it was produced.
  • Haberjet (Middle Ages): A coarse wool broadcloth from England, associated with medieval monks.
  • Habit Cloth: A fine wool broadcloth from Britain, typically used for women’s riding habits.
  • Lady’s Cloth: A lighter weight broadcloth, initially made in lighter shades.
  • Poole Cloth (19th century onwards): Named after the tailoring establishment Henry Poole & Co (founded 1806), this broadcloth is known for its clear finish.
  • Suclat: A cotton broadcloth made in Europe and popular in the East Indian market.
  • Superfine (18th century onwards): A merino broadcloth used in men’s tailoring.
  • Tami: A broadcloth made in China.
  • Taunton (16th century): Produced in Taunton, available in medium or coarse grades, with a legally fixed weight of 11oz. per yard.
  • Tavestock (circa 1200-1350): A historic variety of broadcloth.
  • Western Dozen (16th century): Another term for Tavestock broadcloth.
Amb. 317.2° Folio 4 verso (Mendel I) 1425
Amb. 317.2° Folio 60 verso (Mendel I) 1437
Amb. 317.2° Folio 71 recto (Mendel I)   1450
The broadcloth market at ’s-Hertogenbosch, near the historic Duchy of Brabant, circa 1530
Isaac van Swanenburg’s 1595 depiction of Dutch textile workers.
King Gustav II Adolf’s(1594-1632) dress of dark purple broadcloth and gold.
Coat ca. 1760 (made) © V&A MUSEUM
A man’s coat and waistcoat of beige poplin with a silk warp and woollen weft. The coat has a 1-inch (2.5 cm) standing collar and curving 2-piece sleeves end in cuffs 3½ inches (9 cm) deep. The fronts curve from neck to hem with pleats 4¾-inch (12.2 cm) deep, below the hip set at the side back. Each front has a pocket with scalloped pocket flap; the centre-back seam is open below the hip. The back is lined with pink glazed worsted, the sleeves and pockets with bleached linen, the fronts, skirts and pocket flaps with pale pink silk twill. The coat is decorated with loops of chained gimp, with a silk-covered button and tassel, all in beige silk, at one end. These are arranged singly, in a pair, in three along the left and right fronts. There are 2 loops on each cuff, 3 on each pocket flap and 3 on each side of the centre-back opening. There are 3 buttons and tassels below each pocket and 3 along the pleats. The fronts fastened with 3 hooks and eyes, 1 below the collar, 1 about 13 cm below, another about 12 cm below the second .The waistcoat fronts are made of the beige poplin with a round neck, curving fronts and skirts reaching the top of the thigh. Each front has a pocket and scalloped pocket flap. The back is beige worsted twill. The waistcoat is lined with fustian the fronts faced, skirts and pocket flaps lined with pale pink silk twill. There are 13 worked buttonholes along the left front and 13 corresponding beige silk thread-covered buttons on the right front.
Coat 1775-1785 (made) © V&A MUSEUM
Coat 1775-1785 (made) © V&A MUSEUM
A man’s coat and waistcoat of beige poplin with a silk warp and woollen weft. The coat has a 1-inch (2.5 cm) standing collar and curving 2-piece sleeves end in cuffs 3½ inches (9 cm) deep. The fronts curve from neck to hem with pleats 4¾-inch (12.2 cm) deep, below the hip set at the side back. Each front has a pocket with scalloped pocket flap; the centre-back seam is open below the hip. The back is lined with pink glazed worsted, the sleeves and pockets with bleached linen, the fronts, skirts and pocket flaps with pale pink silk twill. The coat is decorated with loops of chained gimp, with a silk-covered button and tassel, all in beige silk, at one end. These are arranged singly, in a pair, in three along the left and right fronts. There are 2 loops on each cuff, 3 on each pocket flap and 3 on each side of the centre-back opening. There are 3 buttons and tassels below each pocket and 3 along the pleats. The fronts fastened with 3 hooks and eyes, 1 below the collar, 1 about 13 cm below, another about 12 cm below the second .The waistcoat fronts are made of the beige poplin with a round neck, curving fronts and skirts reaching the top of the thigh. Each front has a pocket and scalloped pocket flap. The back is beige worsted twill. The waistcoat is lined with fustian the fronts faced, skirts and pocket flaps lined with pale pink silk twill. There are 13 worked buttonholes along the left front and 13 corresponding beige silk thread-covered buttons on the right front.
Coat 1795-1805 (made) © V&A MUSEUM
A man’s coat of poplin with silk warp and faun-coloured worsted weft, striped with yellow and ivory in satin weave, with a 2¼-inch (5.7 cm), turned-down collar, revers and curving, 2-piece sleeves ending in working mariner’s cuffs, 3¼ inches (8.2 cm) deep. The fronts are cut straight across at the waist, with pleats ½-inch (1.2 cm) deep, beside the centre back. Each front a shaped pocket flap; the right side has a welted pocket underneath. The centre-back seam is open below the hip. The back and sleeves are lined with bleached linen, the skirts with pink and green ribbed cotton, the pockets with beige cotton twill; the pocket flaps are self-lined. The coat is true double-breasted; there are 3 worked buttonholes and 3 cut-steel buttons on each front. The cuffs have 3 cut-steel buttons and cut buttonholes; there is a button at the top, centre and hem of the pleats.
class society
Similar to the industrial era of 19th century England, there was a significant class disparity. At one end, the patricians, or members of affluent families with interests in the cloth industry, wielded substantial control over textile towns and lived lavishly in grand inner-city residences. On the other end were the textile workers, often confined to the outskirts where factories stood. Even within this group, there were hierarchies. Weavers employed spinners, fullers, and threadmakers. In Ghent, recurring clashes between weavers and fullers, each vying for political clout, caused social and political turmoil. Weavers usually emerged dominant, while fullers, who were poorly compensated, had a job considered dirty and demeaning.
The traditional method in the Low Countries from the 14th to 16th centuries involved fullers processing woven cloth in vats filled with hot water, fuller’s earth, and urine. The fuller would tread on the cloth in this foul mixture for three days, longer for more luxurious fabrics. Thus, it was no wonder that being a fuller was seen as the lowest and most degrading profession. Moreover, dyeing at this stage often left fullers with permanently stained hands and feet.
This imbalance between patricians and textile workers sparked revolts. In 1252 and 1274, impoverished cloth workers in Ghent protested against their lack of rights. In 1280, workers in almost every textile town in Flanders took to the streets over poor working conditions. It wasn’t until the era of Jacques van Artevelde, 50 years later, that Flemish textile workers saw some improvement in their status. By then, however, it was too late for the declining Flemish textile industry.




The decline of the Flemish cloth industry can be attributed to three main factors. Firstly, the gradual silting of Bruges harbor due to sand accumulation over the years was a critical issue. To address the potential inaccessibility of Bruges harbor, Damme port was constructed in 1180. However, by the end of the 13th century, even Damme couldn’t accommodate the large Italian ships. Subsequently, in 1290, the distant seaport of Sluis was opened, but this solution was temporary. Sluis harbor too faced silting issues, forcing larger ships to anchor offshore and transfer their cargo to Sluis via barges, leading to inefficiencies in time and cost. Consequently, Bruges began to lose its prominent status, complicating the cloth export process.
Secondly, with declining port convenience, Italian merchants and bankers shifted their focus to Antwerp, a more suitable port for larger ships and a strategically better location. Antwerp provided easier access to new land trade routes through Germany, offering more lucrative investment opportunities than the cloth industry.
The third factor involved competition and taxation. Political tensions between England and France often impacted Flanders’ economy. England frequently used wool export embargoes to Flanders as an effective tactic in their conflicts. The absence of high-quality English wool meant that producing high-quality Flemish cloth became impossible.
Additionally, for the first time, Flemish cloth faced substantial competition as England developed its own cloth industry. To safeguard it, England progressively increased wool export taxes, from a modest 6 shillings and 8 pence per sack (166 kg) in 1275 to a substantial 46 shillings 8 pence per sack by 1341.
This period also marked the end of the Flemish cloth monopoly. The introduction of cheaper Spanish Merino wool changed the market dynamics, with Spanish merchants appearing in Bruges, Ghent, and Ypres. However, while Spanish wool was adequate for medium-quality garments, it did not match the luxury woolens that the Flemish industry specialized in.
The industry’s downturn led some Flemish textile workers to migrate to England in search of better opportunities, though many stayed behind in hope of improved conditions. Their situation somewhat ameliorated in the 14th century following the Black Death, which reduced their numbers and led to a labor shortage, enhancing their market position and working conditions. Despite this, the era of Flemish dominance in the cloth industry had come to an end.



Why do Americans refer to poplin as “broad”cloth
Initially, the term “broadcloth” simply denoted fabric that was wider than narrow cloth. Over time, however, it became associated with a specific type of textile. Webster’s dictionary from 1909, as reissued in 1913, describes broadcloth as a fine, smooth woolen fabric used for men’s clothing, typically twice the width of woolens that were three-quarters of a yard across, highlighting the traditional distinction by width as well as the modern classification by fabric type.
In the American textile industry since the early 1920s, “broadcloth” has referred to a plain weave fabric, often with a mercerized finish, featuring a ribbed texture and a denser filling yarn. This material, used predominantly for shirts, is crafted from either cotton or a mix of cotton and polyester. Originating from the UK under the name “poplin,” the fabric was rebranded in the US as “broadcloth” due to the perception that the term “poplin” implied a heavier weight. 
The Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States categorizes fabrics as “broadwoven” or “narrow woven,” based on a width threshold of 30 centimeters (approximately 12 inches). According to this criterion, the US government concludes that broadwoven fabrics constitute about 70-75% of the world’s cloth production by weight.

当初、「ブロードクロス」という用語は、「ナロークロス」の対義語としてのみ使われていましたが、後に特定のタイプの布を指す言葉となりました。1909年のウェブスター辞典(1913年に再版されたもの)では、ブロードクロスを「男性の衣類用の、滑らかな表面を持つ上質なウールの布で、通常はダブル幅(つまり、1ヤード半 [140 cm])であり、幅が3/4ヤード [69 cm] のウール素材と区別するためにそう呼ばれる」と定義しており、幅に基づく旧来の区別と、布のタイプに基づく新しい定義の両方を示しています。

1920年代初頭からアメリカの市場では、「ブロードクロス」という用語が、平織りで通常はマーセライズ加工(シルキー加工の一種で、綿糸または綿布にシルクのような光沢を持たせる加工。 別名シルケット加工)された布を指す言葉として使われるようになりました。この布は、綿またはポリエステルと綿のブレンドから作られ、リブ(畝)のような風合いと密度の高い緯糸が使用されており主にシャツ作りに使われます。この生地は1920年代初頭にイギリスからの輸入品として導入されましたが、そこではポプリンと呼ばれていましたが、ポプリンが重量感を連想させると考えられたため、恣意的に「ブロードクロス」と改名されました。

米国の関税率表(Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States)では、以下のように分類されている。「ブロードウーブン」と「ナローウーブン」という明確な用語を使用しており、幅のカットオフは30センチメートル(約12インチ)です。この定義によると、アメリカ政府は、重量に基づいて全世界の布生産の約70-75%がブロードウーブンであると推定しています。

Tortora, Phyllis G.; Johnson, Ingrid (17 September 2013). The Fairchild Books Dictionary of Textiles.
Originally a fabric made on a wide loom, specifically, one wider than 27 in. (67.5 cm). 2. In the U.S., a fine, closely woven, lustrous cotton or polyester/cotton fabric made in unbalanced plain weave with a fine rib in the direction of the filling. The filling yarn is heavier and has less twist than the warp yarn. In the best qualities, combed ply yarns are used in the warp and filling; combed singles or carded yarns are used in the poorer grades. A standard construction is 144 x 76. While the original constructions were 144 x 76 and were composed of two-ply combed long-staple yarns in both warp and filling, there are a number of lower count fabrics in this field ranging down to 80 x 60 carded single yarns in both warp and filling. The cloth usually is mercerized and has a soft, firm finish. The shirting fabric originated in Great Britain. When it was introduced in the U.S. during the early 1920s, the British name poplin was not used because it was felt that this connoted a heavier fabric. Instead the name broadcloth was given with relatively little reason for the choice of term. 3. A fabric similar to cotton broadcloth made of rayon and polyester/rayon blends in shirting and dress weights. Synonym: FUJI. 4. A fine, soft, closely woven wool fabric with a napped face, made in a plain or twill weave. The face is napped in one direction; it is smooth and rich looking, and better qualities have a glossy, velvety feel. Spun rayon and wool blends sometimes are used. Uses: women’s dresses, suits, coats, pajamas, and men’s shirts
元々は広い織機で作られた生地で、特に27インチ(67.5cm)より広いもの。2. アメリカ合衆国では、細かく密に織られた光沢のある綿またはポリエステル/綿の生地で、充填方向に細かい畝がある不均衡な平織りで作られています。充填用の糸はより重く、撚りがワープ糸よりも少ないです。最高品質のものには、ワープと充填に梳毛した合撚糸が使用されますが、質の低いものには梳毛シングルやカード糸が使用されます。標準的な構造は144×76です。元の構造は144×76で、ワープと充填の両方に2本撚りの梳毛長繊維糸が使われていましたが、この分野では80×60のカードシングル糸までの低いカウントの生地が多数あります。通常、この布はメルセライズされており、柔らかくしっかりとした仕上がりがあります。シャツ用生地はイギリスで始まりました。1920年代初頭にアメリカ合衆国に導入された際、重い生地を連想させると感じられたため、イギリスの名称ポプリンは使用されませんでした。代わりにブロードクロスという名称が、用語の選択にはそれほど理由がなく与えられました。3. レーヨンとポリエステル/レーヨンブレンドのシャツ用やドレス用の重さの布で、綿のブロードクロスに似た生地。同義語:FUJI。4. ナップ面のある細かく密に織られた柔らかいウール生地で、平織りまたは綾織りで作られます。面は一方向に起毛しており、滑らかで豊かな外観があり、品質の良いものは光沢のあるビロードのような感触です。回転レーヨンとウールのブレンドが時々使用されます。用途:女性のドレス、スーツ、コート、パジャマ、男性のシャツ。
The Sun, 2 November 1919
The Evening World, 11 August 1920

ジェームス・マクリーリー&カンパニー 5番街 木曜日に 34番ストリート
特別セール 2700枚 メンズ シルクシャツ $7.95 (税込)

The Evening World, 10 June 1920
The Medina Tribune, 6 July 1922
The Medina Tribune, 6 July 1922
Niagara Falls Gazette, 22 September 1925
The Nassau Daily Review, 14 January 1932
The Nassau Daily Review, 14 January 1932
The Journal-News, 22 January 1934
The Journal-News, 17 January 1934
Ogdensburg Journal, 9 July 1935
Nassau Daily Review-Star, 3 December 1940
Hempstead NY Sentinel 1940-1944
Exclusive at Arnold’s Conatable: Cotton Poplin Used by the U.S. Army in Field Jackets. Features include a double yoke at the front and back, deep trench pockets, wind resistance, and water repellency. Available in natural, airforce blue, and alert red colors. Sizes range from 12 to 20
The Glens Falls Times, 30 March 1949
The Glens Falls Times, 17 August 1955
The Glens Falls Times, 30 August 1957
Broadcloth is a type of plain weave fabric commonly used for dress shirts. It is characterized by having warp (vertical) and weft (horizontal) threads of the same thickness, with the density of warp threads being double that of the weft threads. This weaving technique creates fine ridges (unevenness) in the direction of the weft. The thread count, which indicates the thickness of the yarns, ranges broadly from 40 to 200, but products in the 50 to 60 range are most commonly found in the market. Fabrics with a thread count of 80 and above are considered high-quality materials. In the United States, this fabric is known as “broadcloth,” a term that is also widely recognized in Japan. In the United Kingdom, it is referred to as “poplin,” a name that originates from a French place name. In Japan, the term “poplin” typically refers to a fabric woven with thicker yarns in the range of 20 to 30 thread count.

Cotton is a fabulous fibre !

Cotton is a soft, versatile, and durable natural fiber that can be used for clothing, bedding, medical products, and industrial goods. It is highly absorbent, comfortable, and regulates body temperature. Cotton is also a sustainable crop that requires relatively low amounts of water and pesticides compared to other crops. Its cultural significance and economic importance make it an indispensable material in our daily lives.
January – 2023 15 MINS READ

The history of sheep breeding.

Sheep breeding began around 11,000 years ago for wool and meat. Selective breeding led to different breeds adapted to different environments and purposes. The Industrial Revolution led to increased demand for wool and the development of specialized breeds.


Understanding the difference between “combed(worsted)” and “spun(woolen)” is one of the most difficult things for a layman to grasp when they first start learning about yarn. It took me a long time to understand the difference myself, perhaps because I didn’t have any yarn to experiment with. Without any yarn to see and touch, it can be difficult to understand how it is made. The same is true for other materials, but wool is particularly challenging to understand. However, it is surprising how little-known it is that wool has been a necessity in human life since before Christ. Let’s study the very first part of this story together.
September – 2023  20 MINS READ