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The Lost Pendleton Woolen Mills / Vintage Tags

JULY – 2023 20 MINS READ
You will no longer be able to get your hands on a Pendleton shirt. Some would argue that this is not true. To be precise, Pendleton shirts and trousers will still be in the shops every winter. T-shirts with the logo may even be on sale. However, they are licensed products produced in Asia. Whether that is genuine or fake depends on the person. But I feel that only shirts made in the USA on American-made Pendleton fabric and sewn in the USA have any meaning.
If you just want to see how to identify a “vintage name tag”…
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We must first know the history of Oregon’s relationship with the land and wool in order to understand why the Pendleton woolen mills have flourished so much.

Oregon has been known for its thriving wool industry due to its favorable climate and suitable grazing lands for sheep. The high-quality wool produced in the state has been sought after for various textile applications. It has supported a robust local processing sector, with wool being carefully sorted, cleaned, and processed in facilities within the state, creating employment opportunities and driving economic growth. Additionally, Oregon wool is valued for its versatility and natural properties, making it commonly used in the production of warm and durable clothing items like sweaters, scarves, and socks. Its moisture-wicking ability and insulation properties have made it ideal for outdoor apparel, appealing to both outdoor enthusiasts and fashion-conscious consumers.

The sustainable and eco-friendly nature of wool has also contributed to Oregon’s green initiative, as it is a renewable resource that can be harvested from sheep without causing harm to the animals, and its production process has a relatively low environmental impact compared to synthetic fibers.Furthermore, the wool industry in Oregon has a deep-rooted tradition and heritage, with many ranchers and farmers continuing the practice of raising sheep and producing wool for generations. This adds value to the wool products and attracts consumers looking for authentic and locally-sourced materials.

To ensure the accuracy and current status of this information, it is recommended to consult more recent and up-to-date sources regarding Oregon’s wool industry and its contributions to the textile sector.



According to
“Oregon Historical Society Quarterly / Sheep farming in Oregon (1902)
The Pioneer Years of Domestic Sheep Rearing.
The materials of history are not yet ripe enough to give us authentic data of the very first introduction of domesticated sheep into Oregon, and will not be perhaps until the historical gleaner is admitted to the records of the Hudson Bay Company, the rule of which was superseded over the valley of the Columbia River between 1840 and 1843, by the pioneer American home builders. The earliest mention of sheep in Oregon is by John Ball, who came with N. J. Wyeth in 1832, and who became the first school-teacher by instruction of a dozen boys, sons of officers of the Hudson Bay Company. In the winter of 1832-33, in a letter to his parents, dated Vancouver, February 23, 1833, Mr. Ball says: “This is a post of the Hudson Bay Company, which extends its trade in furs from Canada to this place. Here they have extensive farming operations, raise wheat, corn, pease, potatoes, * * * and have cattle, sheep and hogs.” In a letter to the writer, Dr. W. F. Tolmie mentio “by the use of sheep and rape the late Daniel Harvey was in the early 30’s producing better crops of wheat from the company’s farm on Mill Plain than I now (1880) see the American farmers getting.”
The next record of sheep in Oregon is in Bancroft’s Ore gon, Vol. I, p. 338, quoting Wilkes for the fact of sheep being at the Waiilatpu Mission in 1841, having been obtained from the Hawaiian Islands. On page 346 the same historian tells us the Nez Perces, in 1842, owned 32 neat cattle, 10 sheep and 40 hogs, and that the Cayuses had 70 head of cattle, mostly cows, and also a few “sheep earned by herding the flock belonging to the mission.” This, doubtless, was the result of the Whitman mission policy of teaching the natives spinning and weaving, and we have good reason for believing Dr. Whitman was very anxious to have the United States add sheep to the medium of purchase of the native right to the soil, as one of the best agencies of civilization. The savage massacre, which destroyed this heroic man and all his plans, wiped out all connection between them and the American home builders, then confined to western Oregon, and we have no evidence that any sheep were in western Oregon, ex cept at Vancouver, prior to the second cattle drive from California in 1842-43, when Jacob P. Lease, an American settler in California, yielding to the advice of Capt. Joseph Gale and his associates, started his flock of 900 head in the wake of Gale’s drive of 1,250 head of cattle and 600 head of horses and mules to sell to the Oregon settlers.
「オレゴン歴史協会季刊誌/オレゴンの牧羊(1902年)家畜羊飼育の草創期 によれば

歴史の資料はまだオレゴンへ最初に家畜化された羊の正確なデータを提供するには十分に熟しておらず、おそらくは歴史的な情報を集める者がハドソン湾会社の記録にアクセスできるようになるまでわからないでしょう。(注釈 HBCはこの頃はビーバーの皮と肉を目的に入植していた) その後この会社は1840年から1843年の間にコロンビア川流域でアメリカのパイオニアたちによって取って代わられます。オレゴンにおける最初の羊の言及は、1832年にN・J・ワイエスと共に来たジョン・ボールによってなされました。彼はハドソン湾会社の幹部の息子たち12人を指導したことで最初の学校教師となりました。1832年から1833年の冬、バンクーバーで書かれた1833年2月23日付の親への手紙の中で、ボール氏は次のように述べています。「ここはハドソン湾会社の拠点であり、カナダからこの地まで毛皮の取引を行っています。ここでは広大な農業が行われ、小麦、とうもろこし、豌豆、じゃがいもなどを栽培し、家畜として牛、羊、豚も飼っています。」 また、執筆者に宛てた手紙で、W・F・トルミー博士が「羊とハンプの利用により、遅くとも1830年代初頭にダニエル・ハーヴェイは会社のミル・プレーン農場でアメリカの農家が現在(1880年時点)見ているよりも良い小麦の収穫を行っていました」と述べています。
John Minto (1822 – 1915) 
© wikipedia commons
John Minto described his sudden decision in 1844 to embark on a journey to Oregon as a “species of madness,” an impulsive act that involved little contemplation and fearlessness. He joined the R.W. Morrison family wagon group as a contract laborer, displaying an unwavering commitment to the cross-country trek and whatever awaited him at the end of the trail. Throughout his subsequent and lengthy life in Oregon, Minto remained an ardent advocate of his adopted state, regularly attending meetings of the Oregon Pioneer Association and contributing memoir articles to the Oregon Historical Quarterly. However, his most significant contribution to Oregon lay in his promotion of agricultural ventures and active participation in state politics. 
Born in England in 1822, Minto arrived in the United States at the age of eighteen. He initially worked in Pittsburgh-area mines with his father, but in 1844, he headed west with the intention of pursuing a career in lead mining in Iowa. However, he abandoned this plan when he joined the Morrisons and traveled west from the Missouri River with a wagon train that included Michael T. Simmons and George Washington, two of the first settlers in the south Puget Sound region.
Minto left the wagon train at Fort Hall, journeying ahead with a companion to the Willamette Valley and then returning to the Columbia River in December to meet the Morrison train and assist them on the final leg of their journey. He completed the remainder of his labor contract for the Morrisons at Linnton on the Willamette River. By 1847, he had married Morrison’s daughter, Martha Ann, and acquired farmland near the Methodist mission in the Willamette Valley.
As an agriculturalist, Minto found success by focusing on commercially viable activities such as orchards and sheep raising. By the 1850s, he had started organizing other farmers to promote the development of better market roads and the sharing of agricultural knowledge. He played a key role in founding the Oregon State Agricultural Society in the 1860s and helped finance the Willamette Farmer, a publication aimed at promoting Oregon’s agriculture.
Minto gained national recognition as a sheep expert and a staunch defender of sheep raising in national forests, particularly in his disputes with John Muir over sheep grazing rights. He had cultivated a thriving business of pure Merino sheep-raising and had developed a transhumance grazing routine (moving sheep from lowland to highland pastures) in the Cascade Mountain foothills by the time he clashed with Muir regarding grazing on national forests. He also served as an expert guide during federal investigations in 1897-1898, which eventually led to the allowance of grazing on the forests, though he argued for state regulation rather than federal government control. Minto continued to oppose federal forest policies and stringent regulations on sheep grazing until his death, asserting in 1915 that the National Forestry Act of 1897 was “unwarranted by the constitution of the nation and the compacts of congress exacted from the people of Oregon as conditions of their admission as a state.”
In the realm of politics, Minto was a Republican and served four terms in the state legislature in 1862, 1868, 1880, and 1890. He also sat on the Oregon State Board of Horticulture from 1896 to 1899 and played a founding role in the Oregon Pioneers Association, serving as its president three times. Additionally, he played a crucial role in the discovery of a road over the Cascade Mountains in the Santiam River drainage, known today as Santiam Pass. His legacy is commemorated in Oregon, with geographical features such as Minto Mountain in eastern Linn County and Minto-Brown Island Park in Marion County, marking the areas where he farmed for many years near Salem. John Minto passed away in Salem in 1915 at the age of ninety-two.
Shaniko, Oregon – Wool Capitol of the World
Shaniko, Oregon, an almost abandoned town, was originally settled by a pioneer named August Scherneckau, who arrived after the Civil War and purchased a farm near the town’s present location. When Indians mispronounced his name as Shaniko, the area became known by that name. In 1900, a 10,000-gallon wooden water tower was constructed, drawing water from nearby Cross Hollow Canyon and storing it in two large wooden tanks through a wooden pipe system.
Shortly after, in just one year, two financiers from The Dalles, B.F. Laughlin and W. Lord, built a massive wool warehouse in Shaniko, which became the largest in Oregon at the time. The town rapidly developed into a significant trade center for the wool produced in central and eastern Oregon. In the same year, 1901, Shaniko officially became an incorporated town. By then, it boasted a bank, two blacksmith shops, a two-story city hall housing the fire station and jail, three hotels, two newspapers, a post office, five saloons, two stores, and numerous other structures. Church services were also held in the school building. In 1903 Shaniko was referred to as the “Wool Capital of the World” after three wool sales brought in the largest total sale of wool on record. The next year, sheepmen sold an estimated five million dollars worth of wool to buyers in Shaniko
For more than a century, Hay Creek Ranch has been one of Oregon’s largest and most prominent ranch holdings, playing a significant role in the history of central Oregon. Dr. David Baldwin established the ranch in 1873 as the Baldwin Sheep and Land Company. Situated on the western edge of Hay Creek Basin, approximately ten miles east of present-day Madras, and twenty-five miles northwest of Prineville, it earned the nickname “Baldwin Hills.” Until around 1912, the Dalles-Prineville freight and stagecoach lines ran through the ranch headquarters. Dr. Baldwin successfully bred Merino sheep that he had brought from Vermont, and he was among the pioneering ranchers in Oregon to cultivate alfalfa for winter feed. In 1883, due to failing health, he sold the ranch to three Portland men: Hiram Longcoy, along with brothers J.P. Van Houten and C.A. Van Houten. Later, they were joined by C.M. Cartwright and a Welsh aristocrat and Wyoming sheepman named John G. “Jack” Edwards. Eventually, Edwards bought out his partners, and by 1901, he and his English wife Elizabeth were living on the ranch.
During the period from 1900 to 1920, the ranch was surrounded by numerous homesteaders. It served the community by operating a post office, general store, and school, while many struggling neighboring farmers found work as Hay Creek hands. In those years, Edwards significantly expanded both the ranch’s size, encompassing about 30,000 acres, and its sheep-breeding operations. He developed a Rambouillet-Merino-Delaine crossbreed, known as the Baldwin sheep, which gained worldwide fame, with extensive sales to Australia, Europe, Argentina, and Russia. The Baldwin sheep was bred to maximize size, meat quality and quantity, and wool production.
The ranch’s growth relied not only on Edwards’s aggressive acquisition of adjacent lands, often from homesteaders, but also on the unrestricted use of forest lands in the Ochoco and Blue Mountains for summer grazing. However, around 1909, the U.S. Forest Service significantly curtailed grazing rights in the interest of conservation. As a result, Edwards sold the ranch and approximately twenty thousand sheep to L.B. Menefee and Henry Pittock of Portland, who continued to focus on sheep breeding. In 1922, they sold the ranch to W.O. Sanderson, an English sheepman.
Under Sanderson’s ownership in 1927, the ranch made a significant sale, exporting ten thousand purebred Baldwin sheep as breeding stock to the Russian government. The sheep embarked on a journey with ranch employees Windom Crosswhite, Frank Gill, and Clayton Garrett as drovers. It was perhaps the largest number of sheep ever exported at one time in U.S. history. They departed from Madras by train, were loaded onto a ship in New York harbor, and eventually reached Russia. Unfortunately, most of the sheep were consumed by Russian peasants within a year.
ヘイ・クリーク牧場は、1世紀以上もの間、オレゴン州最大かつ最も著名な牧場のひとつであり、オレゴン州中部の歴史において重要な役割を果たしてきました。デイビッド・ボールドウィン博士は、1873年にボールドウィン・シープ・アンド・ランド・カンパニーとして牧場を設立。ヘイ・クリーク・ベイスンの西端に位置し現在のマドラスの東約10マイル、プリンビルの北西約25マイルに位置するこの牧場は、”ボールドウィン・ヒルズ “というニックネームで呼ばれていました。1912年頃まで、ダレス-プリンビルの貨物列車と駅馬車が牧場本部を通っていました。 ボールドウィン博士は、バーモント州から連れてきたメリノ種の羊の飼育に成功し、オレゴン州で冬の飼料用にアルファルファを栽培した先駆的な牧場主のひとりでした。1883年、健康を害したため、彼はこの牧場をポートランドのハイラム・ロングコイと、J.P.ヴァン・ホーテンとC.A.ヴァン・ホーテンの兄弟の3人に売却した。その後、彼らにはC.M.カートライトと、ウェールズ貴族でワイオミングの牧羊業者ジョン・G.「ジャック」エドワーズが加わる。やがてエドワーズはパートナーの権利を買収し、1901年までにはイギリス人の妻エリザベスとともに牧場に住むようになりました。 
Indian Trade Blankets
An Indian trade blanket is a commercially woven wool blanket with striking geometric patterns. Trade blankets have been an integral part of Native American culture for a long time, used for clothing, bedding, warmth, ceremonial dances, and as gifts for important occasions. The original Indian trade blankets were multi-striped point blankets imported by the Hudson’s Bay Company from English woolen mills. From 1780 to 1890, these point blankets were a staple in every fur trader’s inventory, and thousands of them found their way into the hands of indigenous people.
However, another weaving tradition started in the 18th century when the Navajo tribe of the American Southwest began weaving sheep’s wool into classic wearing blankets, which became highly sought-after trade items. After the Indian Wars ended in 1890, the reservation system began, and all tribes became wards of the United States government. Federally licensed Indian trading posts were established, and the Indian traders created a new textile – the Navajo rug. These rugs were much heavier than traditional Navajo wearing blankets and were designed specifically for non-Indian homes’ floors. The designs were influenced by Oriental rugs popular in the eastern United States. Consequently, the Navajo stopped making wearing blankets and focused solely on weaving rugs for sale through white traders.
With the Navajo now exclusively weaving rugs, commercial woolen mill operators saw an opportunity to sell their machine-made blankets to the Indians. This resulted in Indians selling rugs to whites and whites selling Indian blankets to Native Americans – a practice that continues to this day. For over a hundred and ten years, Indian blankets have been made for Indians, not by them! Indian trade blankets are often generically referred to as Pendleton blankets. While Pendleton is the only pioneer Indian blanket manufacturer still in existence, there were many other companies that made Indian blankets.
インディアン・トレード・ブランケットとは、幾何学模様が印象的な商業的に織られたウールのブランケットです。貿易毛布は長い間ネイティブ・アメリカンの文化に欠かせないもので、衣服、寝具、防寒、儀式の踊り、重要な日の贈り物として使われてきました。 インディアン・トレード・ブランケットの原型は、ハドソンズ・ベイ・カンパニーがイギリスの毛織物工場から輸入したマルチストライプのポイント・ブランケットと言われています。1780年から1890年まで、このポイント毛布は毛皮商の定番品で何千枚もの毛布が先住民の手に渡りました。しかし、18世紀にアメリカ南西部のナバホ族が羊の毛を織ってクラシックな着る毛布を作り始めたときにそれとは別の織物の伝統が始まりました。 1890年に最後のインディアン戦争が終結すると、居留地制度が始まりすべての部族は合衆国政府の管理下になった。連邦政府の認可を受けたインディアン商館が設立され初め、インディアン商人たちは新しい織物、ナバホ・ラグを生み出しました。このラグは伝統的なナバホの着る毛布よりもずっと重く、インディアン以外の家の床用に特別にデザインされたものでした。デザインはアメリカ東部で人気のある東洋の絨毯の影響も受けていました。その結果ナバホ族は着る毛布を作るのを止め白人商人を通して販売する絨毯を織ることだけに専念するようになります。ナバホ族が敷物だけを織るようになったことで、商業毛織物工場の経営者たちは機械織りの毛布をインディアンに販売する逆転現象が起きはじめました。ナバホの織り手たちは非先住民の観光客や輸出向けに合わせたラグの制作に移行しました。この適応により、彼らは市場の多様化を図り、自らの織りの伝統を維持することもできました。インディアン・トレードの毛布は、一般的にペンドルトン毛布と呼ばれることが多い。現存するインディアン毛布メーカーのパイオニアはペンドルトンだけですが、他にもインディアン毛布を作る会社はたくさん存在していました。
Navajo weaving © wikipedia commons
Navajo weaving © wikipedia commons
Navajo weaving, known as “diyogí” in the Navajo language, refers to the textiles crafted by the Navajo people, who reside near the Four Corners region in the United States. These exquisite textiles have held significant value for over 150 years and have been highly sought after as trade commodities. Handwoven blankets and rugs, in particular, have played a crucial role in the Navajo economy. Described by an art historian as comparable in delicacy and sophistication to any pre-mechanical loom-woven textile worldwide, the classic Navajo serapes stand as a testament to the mastery of their craft. Originally, Navajo textiles served practical purposes, serving as cloaks, dresses, saddle blankets, and similar items. As time progressed, the Navajo wearing blankets gained popularity as coveted trade items among Indigenous communities in the Great Plains and neighboring tribes during the mid-19th century. In response to changing demands and opportunities, by the late 19th century, Navajo weavers transitioned to producing rugs catered to non-Native tourists and for exportation. This adaptation allowed them to diversify their market and sustain their weaving tradition.
ナバホ族の織物は、ナバホ族の言葉で “diyogí “と呼ばれ、アメリカのフォーコーナーズ地域周辺に住むナバホ族によって作られる織物のことを指す。これらの精巧な織物は、150年以上にわたって重要な価値を保ち、交易品として高い人気を誇ってきた。特に手織りの毛布と敷物は、ナバホ族の経済において重要な役割を果たしてきた。ある美術史家は、機械織機で織られる以前の織物に匹敵する繊細さと精巧さを持つ織物として、ナバホの古典的なセラペスは、その卓越した技術を証明するものであると述べている。もともとナバホの織物は、マント、ドレス、サドル・ブランケットなど、実用的な役割を果たしていた。時代が進むにつれ、ナバホの着る毛布は、19世紀半ばにはグレートプレーンズの先住民社会や近隣部族の間で、憧れの交易品として人気を博すようになった。需要と機会の変化に対応して、19世紀後半にはナバホ族の織物職人は非ネイティブの観光客や輸出向けの絨毯の生産に移行しました。この適応により、彼らは市場を多様化し、織物の伝統を維持することができた。
The WOOL MAN : Thomas Kay
Thomas Lister Kay, an early Oregon industrialist, established and operated the Thomas Kay Woolen Mill in Salem. The mill held a central place in his life, and his colleagues regarded him as the most experienced expert in woolen textiles in the state. Driven by his vision, he employed skilled workers to produce high-quality woolen and worsted wool fabrics, embraced innovative technology, and installed one of Oregon’s first fire-suppressant building systems. Today, the mill is a part of the Willamette Heritage Center, a testament to Kay’s weaving skills and his profound understanding of the industry’s equipment and processes.
Born on June 24, 1838, to weaver Esias Kay and Elizabeth (Lister) Kay in the Eccleshill Parish, near Bradford and Leeds, England’s textile weaving hub, Thomas Kay had no formal education. Like many children of his time, he started working in woolen mills at the age of ten. Two years after his father’s passing, Kay became an apprentice at a mill in Shipley, where he honed his expertise as a spinner and weaver of fine wool textiles. He also demonstrated a knack for mill equipment and was eventually promoted to the position of loom boss.
Seeking greater opportunities, Thomas Kay immigrated to the United States in 1857. Over the next six years, he worked in several East Coast woolen mills, showcasing his skills as a weaver, mechanic, and loom boss while establishing valuable connections with fellow mill workers. In 1863, John Worsley, an English friend and mill entrepreneur, offered Kay the role of loom boss at a new start-up mill in Brownsville, Oregon, approximately forty-five miles south of Salem. He eagerly accepted the invitation.
After the Brownsville mill was destroyed by a fire in 1865, Kay found employment at mills in Ellendale, Salem, and Ashland. However, he eventually returned to the rebuilt mill in Brownsville in 1875. As the leader of the mill, Kay managed to generate profits each year until the owners decided to dissolve the business in 1888. Using the $55,000 he earned from his initial $2,000 investment in the mill, Kay decided to establish his own textile mill in Salem. Additionally, he convinced the citizens of Salem to invest $20,000 in his new venture.
Incorporated in 1889, the Thomas Kay Woolen Mill faced another setback five years later when it was again destroyed by fire. Undeterred, Kay and his board of directors resolved to rebuild. Once more, Kay sought support from the citizens of Salem, who raised $25,000 to aid in the reconstruction efforts. While the mill was being rebuilt, Kay relocated production orders and his skilled workers to a mill in Waterloo, located about forty miles southeast, where he held a controlling interest.
With forty years of experience in the industry, Kay introduced innovations to his textile production. He oversaw the design of a new brick building that facilitated a systematic flow of fabric production through each processing step. Architect W.D. Pugh devised a plan that optimized time, resources, and energy, and the building became one of the first in Oregon to have a sprinkler fire-suppression system. When the new mill opened in 1896, Kay received acclaim from the Salem community. He remained true to his promise of repaying Salem’s investment. By November of that year, his mill was manufacturing the first worsted wool cloth west of the Mississippi River.
The mill was often referred to as a model for Oregon towns looking to increase their “home industries” and create jobs. Kay employed up to one hundred or so skilled and unskilled laborers at any one time and reportedly knew them all by name. His daughter Fannie recalls that he told her: “We are workers. We know the injustice that is sometimes imposed on those who work. Never impose on the weak because you are strong, but also do not let others impose on you.” Kay’s employees, by accounts, admired and respected his expertise and the congenial work environment he provided; but he also modeled his business after the relatively low pay and high labor expectations typical for wool mills at the time. His weavers made about $30 a month, worked ten-hour days, and were responsible for the costs of mistakes. Tom Kay and his wife Ann Slingsby were married for forty-three years and had ten children, five of whom preceded him in death. The family lived in a brick house on State and 12th Streets, down the street from the mill. Kay was a Salem City Council alderman from 1894 to 1896 and helped review the financing of Salem’s new city hall. The family belonged to the First Baptist Church in Salem. Kay groomed his children to eventually own and operate the mill, insisting that they learn every facet of the operation. For nearly thirty years, his oldest child Martha Ann “Fannie” Kay (Bishop) (1857–1949) worked alongside her father. She was well versed in the mill’s operations, as were her sons, Clarence and Roy Bishop. Son Harry G. Kay (1869–1894) had his father’s aptitude for equipment and production, and the oldest son Thomas Benjamin (1864–1941) became assistant manager and salesman. Thomas was elected president and general manager when his father died unexpectedly in 1900. Fannie and her husband, Charles P. Bishop, served on the board of directors until 1905, when they sold their interest in the mill. By 1909, the Bishops and their two grown sons had purchased the Pendleton Woolen Mill. Kay’s descendants continued to manage the mill in Salem until it closed in 1962. Thomas Kay’s legacy of expertise and innovation in producing award-winning woolen fabrics in Oregon has been preserved in the mill he helped design and build, which is now a museum run by the Willamette Heritage Center. Many of the mill’s original machinery, including a working water turbine, are on display, as well as exhibits on the family and their employees.
Thomas Kay and his wife Ann Slingsby were married for forty-three years and raised ten children, five of whom passed away before him. The family resided in a brick house on State and 12th Streets, just down the road from the mill. From 1894 to 1896, Kay served as a Salem City Council alderman and contributed to the financing review of Salem’s new city hall. The Kay family were active members of the First Baptist Church in Salem.
Kay prepared his children to eventually take over and manage the mill, insisting that they learn every aspect of its operation. For nearly three decades, his eldest child, Martha Ann “Fannie” Kay (Bishop) (1857–1949), worked alongside her father and became well-versed in the mill’s operations, as did her sons, Clarence and Roy Bishop. Son Harry G. Kay (1869–1894) inherited his father’s aptitude for equipment and production, while the oldest son, Thomas Benjamin (1864–1941), took on the roles of assistant manager and salesman. When Thomas Kay unexpectedly passed away in 1900, Thomas Benjamin was elected president and general manager. Fannie and her husband, Charles P. Bishop, remained on the board of directors until 1905 when they sold their interest in the mill. By 1909, the Bishops and their two grown sons had acquired the Pendleton Woolen Mill. Kay’s descendants continued to oversee the Salem mill until its closure in 1962.
Thomas Kay’s legacy of expertise and innovation in producing award-winning woolen fabrics in Oregon is preserved in the mill he helped design and build. Today, it functions as a museum under the management of the Willamette Heritage Center. Visitors can view many of the mill’s original machinery, including a working water turbine, and explore exhibits about the Kay family and their dedicated employees.
この工場は、”自国産業 “を増やし、雇用を創出しようとするオレゴンの町のモデルとしてしばしば紹介されることになります。ケイは熟練工と非熟練工を常時100人以上雇用し、その全員の名前を知っていたと伝えられています。娘のファニーは、彼が 「私たちは労働者です。私たちは労働者であり、働く者に不公平が課されることを知っている。自分が強いからといって、決して弱い者に押し付けてはいけない。」「ケイの従業員たちは、彼が提供する専門知識と和気あいあいとした職場環境を賞賛し尊敬していたという」がと言っていたと言います。彼はまた当時の毛織物工場に典型的な比較的低賃金で高い労働力を期待されるビジネスを手本にしていた。彼の織工の月給は約30ドルで、10時間労働、ミスの責任は織工にあったとされる。 
トム・ケイと妻のアン・スリングスビーは結婚して43年になり、10人の子供をもうけた。一家は工場から通りを下ったステート・ストリートと12番ストリートのレンガ造りの家に住んでいました。ケイは1894年から1896年までセーラム市議会の市会議員を務め、セーラムの新市庁舎の資金調達の検討に貢献しました。一家はセーラムの第一バプテスト教会に属していた。ケイは、子供たちに製粉所を経営するように進め製粉所運営のあらゆる面を学ばせた。長男のマーサ・アン・”ファニー”・ケイ(ビショップ)(1857-1949)は、30年近く父のそばで働いていた。彼女は息子のクラレンス・ビショップとロイ・ビショップと同様、工場の業務に精通していました。息子のハリー・G・ケイ(Harry G. Kay)(1869~1894)は、設備や生産に関する父の適性を受け継ぎ、長男のトーマス・ベンジャミン(Thomas Benjamin)(1864~1941)はアシスタント・マネージャー兼セールスマンになりました。1900年に父親が急死すると、トーマスは社長兼ゼネラル・マネージャーに選ばれます。ファニーと夫のチャールズ・P・ビショップは、1905年に工場の持分を売却するまで取締役を務めた。1909年までには、ビショップ夫妻と成長した2人の息子がペンドルトン毛織工場を購入しました。ケイの子孫は、1962年に工場が閉鎖されるまで、セーラムで工場の経営を続けました。オレゴンで受賞歴のある毛織物を生産するトーマス・ケイの専門知識と技術革新の遺産は、彼が設計と建設に携わった工場に保存され続けており、現在はウィラメット・ヘリテージ・センターが運営する博物館となっています。現在、ウィラメット・ヘリテージ・センターによって運営されているこの博物館は、現役の水車を含む工場オリジナルの機械の多くが展示されているほかに、一族や従業員に関する展示もあります。 
In 1909, Pendleton Woolen Mills opened its doors in a disused woolen mill that had been established in Pendleton back in 1896. The town made a strong effort to convince the Bishop family, a prominent retail family in Salem with close connections to the Thomas Kay Woolen Mill, to revitalize the shuttered mill. This endeavor hinged on tapping into one of eastern Oregon’s economic strengths—the thriving sheep business. Over the last two decades of the nineteenth century, sheep raising in Oregon had steadily grown, with the number of sheep increasing from one million in 1880 to just over three million by 1900. Pendleton had emerged as a major wool market in the western United States by 1900. A decade later, eight eastern Oregon counties contributed to 51 percent of the state’s total sheep population. In the early twentieth century, Pendleton, competing with Shaniko, served as the primary rail center for receiving and shipping wool to be processed at mills both in the eastern and western parts of the state.
Pendleton Woolen Mills was established in 1909 within a formerly defunct woolen mill that had originally been set up in Pendleton back in 1896. The town’s determined efforts to persuade the Bishop family, a prominent retail family in Salem closely connected to the Thomas Kay Woolen Mill, to revitalize the closed mill, capitalized on one of eastern Oregon’s economic strengths—its prominence in the sheep business.
During the last two decades of the nineteenth century, sheep raising in Oregon experienced steady growth, with the number of sheep increasing from one million in 1880 to slightly over three million by 1900. By 1900, Pendleton had become a primary wool market in the western United States. A decade later, eight eastern Oregon counties accounted for 51 percent of the state’s sheep population. In the early twentieth century, Pendleton, competing with Shaniko, served as the primary rail center for receiving and shipping wool for processing at mills both in the eastern and western parts of the state.
In 1894, Pendleton businessmen had financed a wool scouring mill. The mill had opened in 1896 but closed due to the financial panic of 1907. However, the town’s civic leaders were determined not to let the dream of industrial development perish, so they sought new financing and management to reopen the woolen operation. After extensive negotiations, the Bishop family, led by brothers Clarence, Roy, and Chauncey, agreed to take over the dormant mill. To reach this agreement, local merchants and other townspeople, at the Bishops’ insistence, subscribed to a $30,000 bond issue, which the Bishop family matched. The family also continued to operate the Thomas Kay Mill in Salem.
Clarence Bishop ©A project of the Oregon Historical Society
The Bishops constructed a three-story concrete factory building in Pendleton, installed machinery from the old mill, and swiftly established a thriving business by producing and marketing high-quality blankets and robes inspired by Native American designs. Many of the family’s initial Native designs and patterns, as well as the mill’s focus on tribal trade, drew from the work of the original Pendleton mill, which had marketed Indian blankets and robes. The earlier Pendleton mill operators had taken great care to weave designs and colors sought by tribes from throughout the American West, resulting in a broad customer base. While continuing to produce blankets and robes, the Bishops expanded their product line in the 1920s to include fine woolen apparel for men, and they added women’s apparel after World War II.
Throughout its history, Pendleton Woolen Mills has maintained a strong connection with the City of Pendleton and the people living on the neighboring Umatilla Reservation. In 1910, the Bishop family played a pivotal role in launching the Pendleton Roundup Rodeo, with Roy and Chauncey Bishop serving as directors. The company’s products became known for their distinctive Native American patterns, featuring recognizable designs inspired by Plateau cornhusk, hemp, and beaded objects such as diamonds, arrows, quail tops, and eight-point stars, as well as traditional Native color schemes.
©A project of the Oregon Historical Society
During the early years of the company’s operation, the Bishops hired Joe Rawnsley, a skilled operator of the Jacquard loom, a mechanical weaving machine. Originally from Britain, Rawnsley learned his trade at the Philadelphia Textile School. He joined the original Pendleton mill in 1901 and introduced the Jacquard loom to its operations. By spending time with Native people, he developed color and design preferences that were interpreted into blankets on Jacquard looms, enabling the creation of intricate patterns with vivid colors beyond the capabilities of traditional weaving methods. As a result, Pendleton blankets became cherished gifts incorporated into the traditional ceremonies of the Cayuse, Umatilla, and Walla Walla Tribes of the Umatilla Reservation, including honor dinners, naming ceremonies, and funerals.
Pendleton Woolen Mills has upheld the quality and craftsmanship of its products by continuously refining the manufacturing process within its own facilities. The company utilizes state-of-the-art dye technology with computer-controlled systems for water, dyes, heat, and flow pressures to ensure color accuracy. The carding process carefully combs and aligns fibers for spinning, resulting in yarn that is then woven on high-speed looms, including Jacquard looms for more intricate designs, creating woven cloth. The fabric then undergoes a fulling process that utilizes controlled shrinkage to achieve a soft and tightly woven texture. Various finishing procedures, such as washing, shearing, pressing, napping, and inspection, complete the production cycle. The finished fabric is cut and used to create either blankets or fashion materials, which are then sent to garment plants for apparel production. Each product proudly bears the distinctive blue and gold Pendleton label.
Formed in 1961 in Hawthorne, California, The Beach Boys is an iconic American rock band. Its original lineup comprised three brothers, Brian, Dennis, and Carl Wilson, along with their cousin Mike Love and friend Al Jardine. With their distinctive vocal harmonies, lyrics geared towards adolescents, and musical inventiveness, they have left a lasting impact on the rock genre. Their unique sound was a fusion of influences from older pop vocal groups, 1950s rock and roll, and black R&B. Guided by Brian’s leadership, they often ventured into incorporating classical or jazz elements and employed innovative recording techniques. We don’t know. First they playfully named themselves “Pendleton’s”, which cleverly alludes to the style of woollen shirts called “Pendleton” that were popular at the time.
1961年にカリフォルニア州ホーソーンで結成されたザ・ビーチ・ボーイズは、アメリカを代表するロックバンドです。オリジナルメンバーは、ブライアン、デニス、カール・ウィルソンの3兄弟と、従兄弟のマイク・ラヴ、友人のアル・ジャーディン。独特のヴォーカル・ハーモニー、青少年向けの歌詞、音楽の創意工夫で、彼らはロックというジャンルに永続的な影響を残しました。彼らのユニークなサウンドは、古いポップ・ヴォーカル・グループ、1950年代のロックンロール、黒人R&Bからの影響の融合でした。ブライアンのリーダーシップに導かれ、彼らはしばしばクラシックやジャズの要素を取り入れることに踏み切り、革新的なレコーディング・テクニックを採用しました。あまり知られてませんが。彼らは最初に自分たちを “ペンドルトンズ “と名付けた。これは、当時流行していた “ペンドルトン”のウールシャツのスタイルから拝借したのです。


©A project of the Oregon Historical Society 
Discrimination method of “Vintage Pendleton” tag design.  
After achieving great success with blankets and shawls featuring Native American patterns, Pendleton Woollen Mills began selling wool-based menswear in 1924. The fine quality of its wools was soon well received by the market. From 1929, the company also expanded into sportswear. The product range is expanded from blankets. Clarence Morton Bishop (usually known as ‘CM’), one of Bishop’s first three sons, launched a new range of men’s wool shirts in bright colours and patterns. Until then, wool shirts had been regarded as work shirts and were mostly dull navy blue or brown. This experiment was a great success and the items have been loved throughout the ages, from the surfer boom of the 60s and the hippie boom to the American casual boom of the 90s.After achieving great success with blankets and shawls featuring Native American patterns, Pendleton Woollen Mills began selling wool-based menswear in 1924. The fine quality of its wools was soon well received by the market. From 1929, the company also expanded into sportswear. The product range is expanded to include blankets. Clarence Morton Bishop (usually known as ‘CM’), one of Bishop’s first three sons, launched a new range of men’s wool shirts in bright colours and patterns. Until then, wool shirts had been regarded as work shirts and were mostly dull navy blue or brown. This experiment was a great success and the items have been loved throughout the ages, from the surfer boom of the 60s and the hippie boom to the American casual boom of the 90s.
We will now follow this history of Pendleton’s success by tags from different periods.


1900s - 1910s

1904 – 1915 

The photographs used as reference were not in very good condition and may be half inaccurate with regard to this figure. It is almost certainly the first Pendleton logo tag made. The book states that it says “guarantee to be a pendleton” instead of “warranted to be a pendleton”, which is usually written from now on, but as the photo is unclear (and damaged), it will take some time to clarify. It also features “PURE FREECE WOOL” as it is a blanket tag. This is the thinnest tag. Furthermore, there is some text under the Pendleton mark, but it is unclear whether it is 100% wool, HANDMADE or, like the other tags, “pendleton woolen mills”, which is currently not known. It is currently unknown whether it is 100% wool, HANDMADE or “pendleton woolen mills” like other tags.

参考にした写真の状態があまり良くなかったために、不明瞭な点がありこの図に関しては半分推測も入っているため不正確かもしれない。しかしこの形で最初に作られたペンドルトンのロゴ・タグであることはほぼ間違いないと思われる。また参考文献によれば、「guarantee to be a pendleton」になっておりこの後歴代続く “warranted to be a pendleton”」かもしれない。写真が不鮮明(かつ傷んでいる)なので、はっきりさせるにはもう少し鮮明な資料が必要であろう。ブランケットなので「PURE FREECE WOOL」と記されています。これは最も縦幅が薄いタグのタグです。さらにペンドルトン・マークの下に文字があるように見えるだが、それがウール100%なのか、HANDMADEなのか、他のタグと同じく「PENDLETON WOOLEN MILLS」なのか、もしくは単なる汚れなのかは今のところ不明です。(fromと判別しました)

1920s - 1930s

1921 – 1930
© Chasing Rainbows
1923 – 1930
© A Brief History of the Zion Park Blanket.

The “Cayuse” are a Native American tribe in what is now the state of Oregon in the United States. The Cayuse tribe shares a reservation and government in northeastern Oregon with the Umatilla and the Walla Walla tribes as part of the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation. The reservation is located near Pendleton, Oregon, at the base of the Blue Mountains. As white settlers moved into their territory in large numbers following the opening of the Oregon Trail in 1842, the Cayuse suffered. Even settlers passing through competed with them for game and water. Crowds of whites invaded the region during the California Gold Rush beginning in 1848 and when gold was discovered in Eastern Oregon in 1862.The Cayuse Indians were located in the Columbia Basin and were nomadic, sometimes moving on a daily basis. They lived in teepees, which many nomadic tribes used for portability. The Cayuse were skilled horsemen, and used horses in hunting. They also used them for their trip over the Rocky Mountains each year to hunt a supply of buffalo to bring back for their families. The men hunted game and fished salmon. The women gathered and picked berries and dug and processed roots. The women also processed the animal skins to make materials for shelter and clothing. The men considered bravery to be an important quality, with brave warriors being held in high esteem. The strongest would be made chief.

1915 – 1922
© Chasing Rainbows
1923 – 1930
© ebay
This is the first tag for one of Pendleton’s blankets, the ‘Beaver State’. Oregon is known as “The Beaver State” due to its deep connection with the animal. The beaver was chosen as Oregon’s official animal for several reasons, which also led to the state earning the nickname “The Beaver State.” In 1969, Oregon’s state legislature declared the beaver as the official state animal. Early settlers in Oregon trapped beavers for their meat and fur, particularly to make fashionable fur hats. However, the excessive demand for fur hats resulted in the overhunting of beavers, alongside the hunting practices of Native Americans who utilized both beaver meat and fur.Beavers thrived in Oregon because of the state’s abundance of streams, providing them with an ideal habitat for rapid procreation and population growth. This abundance led to the establishment of numerous trapping routes where fur trappers set traps along the beavers’ habitats to catch and sell them for their valuable meat and fur. Over time, these early trapping routes evolved into what is now famously known as The Oregon Trail. They are renowned for their impressive construction abilities, using their skills to build dams. These dams not only provide shelter and protection from predators for beavers but also serve as natural erosion control. Their industrious nature has further endeared the beaver to the state of Oregon, making it the official state animal and earning Oregon its moniker “The Beaver State.”
これはペンドルトンのブランケットの最初のシリーズの一つ、「BEAVER STATE」の最初期のタグです。オレゴン州は、ビーバーとの深い関わりから「BEAVER STATE」として知られています。ビーバーがオレゴン州の公式動物に選ばれたのにはいくつかの理由がありますが、それが 「BEAVER STATE」というニックネームにつながった。1969年オレゴン州議会はビーバーを州の公式動物として宣言したからです。オレゴン州の初期の入植者たちは、ビーバーの肉と毛皮を捕獲し、特にファッショナブルな毛皮の帽子を作りました。しかし毛皮の帽子の過剰な需要はビーバーの肉と毛皮の両方を利用していたネイティブ・アメリカンの狩猟習慣と並んで、ビーバーの乱獲を招いてしまいました。ビーバーがオレゴン州で繁栄したのは、州内の豊富な河川が、急速な繁殖と個体数の増加に理想的な生息環境を提供したからですがこの豊富な生息数は毛皮商人たちがビーバーの生息地に罠を仕掛けて捕獲し貴重な肉や毛皮を得るために販売する捕獲ルートの確立につながってしまいました。時を経てこれらの初期の捕獲ルートは、現在「オレゴン・トレイル」として有名なものへと発展しました。 彼らはその素晴らしい建設能力で有名で、その技術を駆使してダムを建設します。これらのダムはビーバーにとって避難所となり、捕食者から身を守るだけでなく自然の砂防の役割も果たしてています。ビーバーの勤勉な性質はオレゴン州にとってビーバーをさらに親しみやすい存在にしオレゴン州を公式な州動物にしオレゴン州を “BEAVER STATE(ビーバーの州) “と呼ぶようになりました 
© Chasing Rainbows
The Blackfoot Confederacy, also known as Niitsitapi or Siksikaitsitapi, refers to a historical collective name encompassing linguistically related groups that constitute the Blackfoot or Blackfeet people. These groups include the Siksika (“Blackfoot”), the Kainai or Blood (“Many Chiefs”), and two segments of the Peigan or Piikani (“Splotchy Robe”) – the Northern Piikani (Aapátohsipikáni) and the Southern Piikani (Amskapi Piikani or Pikuni). In broader terms, the Confederacy may also include other groups like the Tsúùtínà (Sarcee) and A’aninin (Gros Ventre), who spoke different languages but were allied with or joined the Blackfoot Confederacy. The Pendleton Blackfoot Robe, which was made in 1924 in honor of the Blackfoot Tribe of Montana by Pendleton.
ニイツィタピまたはシクシカイツィタピとしても知られるブラックフット連合は、ブラックフット族またはブラックフィート族を構成する、言語的に関連したグループを包括する歴史的な総称です。これらのグループには、シクシカ族(「ブラックフット」)、カイナイ族(「多くの首長」)、ペイガン族(「斑点のローブ」)、ピイカニ族(「北ピイカニ」(Aapátohsipikáni)、南ピイカニ族(Amskapi PiikaniまたはPikuni)の2つの区分が含まれます。より広い意味では、ブラックフット連合には、異なる言語を話しながらもブラックフット連合と同盟を結んだり、ブラックフット連合に参加するTsúùtínà(サルシー)やA’aninin(グロ・ヴァントレ)などのグループも含まれます。1924年、モンタナのブラックフット族に敬意を表してペンドルトンが製作したのがこのブラックフットローブです。

1930s - 1940s

1930 – 1942
© Chasing Rainbows
1930 – 1942
© Chasing Rainbows

1930 – 1972

Around this year, the name tag was changed because the patent expired. Otherwise, the design is the same. In 1932, Pendleton was awarded the commission to produce a special blanket for Olympic athletes.


SHIRT TAG from 1924

1924 - 1930s

Pendleton Woollen Mills is said to have entered the apparel industry in 1924. Although bathrobes and other garments had been available before then, it is said that it was only in that year that the company started selling shirts and other items. The two name tags shown here are said to date from the 1920s and 1930s, when they were launched. They look almost identical, but there is a difference between “ALL WOOL” and “100% VIRGIN WOOL”. The tags may have been used differently as one is a jacket and one is a shirt, but if there is a difference in age between the two, I would guess that the “ALL WOOL” tag is older. However, very few documents from this period are known to exist, so it is currently unknown.
ペンドルトンがアパレル業界に参入したのは1924年と言われています。それまでもバスローブなどの衣料品はありましたが、シャツなどの販売を開始したのはこの年からと言われています。ここに掲載した2枚のネームタグは、1920年代から1930年代にかけて発売されたものですが見た目はほとんど同じに見えますが、下部の文字 「ALL WOOL」と「100% VIRGIN WOOL」の違いがあります。前者はジャケット、後者はシャツなので、タグの使われ方と素材が違うのかもしれないが、仮に両者に年代の差があるとすれば、「ALL WOOL」のタグの方が古いのではないかと推測される。しかし、この時代の文献はほとんど残っていないため、現在のところ不明です。

1940s - Early 1950s

There is little difference in the name tag, which switches from “PENDLETON” to “PORTLAND”. This may be due to the acquisition of “the Columbia Wool Scouring Mill”, a wool scouring company in Portland, which is mentioned above.In the early 1940s, Pendleton devoted the bulk of its business to manufacturing uniforms, blankets and sleeping bags for US soldiers serving in World War II; from 1945 onwards, as the apparel sector flourished, In 1949 Pendleton expanded production of non-wool garments to complement its wool coordinates. In 1949, the company acquired several new factories throughout this period to meet its increasing production needs. In 1941 the company purchased the Columbia Wool Scouring Mill, which it had leased since 1923. In 1946, a new facility was opened in Omaha, Nebraska.

Mid - Late 1950s

The name tag underwent one major change in this period. The size notation, which had previously been displayed separately, was now included on the tag. This meant that Pendleton was doing very well. And what is often overlooked is that the design is slightly different from the tags that come after this. The position of the double quotes, the size of the initials P.W.M “PENDLETON WOLLEN MILLS”, the italicised TRADE MARK… I predict that this area has a lot to do with the factory acquisition. In 1955 the company bought a factory in Portland, Oregon, and then, in an interesting development in 1956, acquired a second Portland facility from the Oregon Worsted Company, which Roy Bishop had left to Pendleton to manage.
この時代にネームタグが一度大きく変わります。これまで別表示だった、サイズ表記がタグに入るようになりました。これはペンドルトンの業績が絶好調であったことを意味します。そして見落としがちなのはこの後に出てくるタグとは微妙にデザインが違います。””の位置・ PENDLETONWOLLENMILLS の頭文字の大きさ・斜体のTRADE MARK…などこの辺りは工場買収と大きく関係してくるのではないかと予測します。もしくは違う工場で作っていたなど。1955年に同社はオレゴン州ポートランドの工場を購入し、その後1956年に興味深い展開で、ロイ・ビショップがペンドルトンに管理を任せていたオレゴン・ワーステッド・カンパニーからポートランドの2番目の施設を買収しました。 


Fine-tuning of the tag design will take place. Pendleton is at its peak in this area with the arrival of the surf boom on top of a still increasing production system, including an increase in the number of sewing factories. This may be the easiest individual product tag to find.

1964 -

From this year onwards, the WoolMark will be placed at the bottom.The Woolmark logo originated from the efforts of the International Wool Secretariat (IWS), established in 1937. It was officially introduced in August 1964 by the IWS, which was then overseen by two Australians: William (Archer) Gunn (1914-2003), the chairman, and William Vines (1916-2011), the managing director.The logo had two primary objectives: first, to elevate wool’s position in the textile market, and second, to guarantee that products displaying the Woolmark label were crafted from pure new wool and met the highest manufacturing standards.

1970s - 1980s

From the early 1970s, the R mark began to appear on the Woolmark®. By 1970, a year after Clarence M. Bishop’s death, the company also had two sewing plants in Portland, one in St Helens, Washington, and three in Nebraska. 1982 saw the acquisition of the Dorr Woolen Co. in New Hampshire, and in 1985 added a facility in Council Bluffs, Iowa. However, the apparel industry declined steadily during the 1970s and 1980s.

1980s - 1990s

The name tag underwent major changes during this year. It was replaced by a new tag with all letters in a frame. Company policy kept them made in the USA, but this did not halt the decline in sales. Pendleton’s St Helens factory closed in 1986. While many other apparel manufacturers moved their operations overseas to take advantage of reduced labour costs, Pendleton, under the leadership of CM Bishop II and Broughton Bishop, continued to manufacture its products in the USA and insisted on fair rules. Regulating international trade; women’s clothing accounted for 65% of the company’s total sales, partly due to a return to classic styles by buyers in the late 1980s. Nevertheless, between 1989 and 1993, when Richard Poss became president, sales fell by about 36 % and total sales by about 28%, although a return to casual clothing in the early 1990s and checked items favoured by grunge fashion helped the company Total sales fell by about 28%.


A rare example of 100% virgin wool but with the wool tag missing; claimed that the shutdown of its Council Bluffs manufacturing operations in 1996 and the closure of its Milwaukee, Portland and Fremont, Nebraska factories in 1998 were based on international trade agreements; the two closures combined meant that Pendleton ‘s national workforce, meaning that approximately 9 per cent of the company’s national workforce has been laid off. The company continued to operate a second plant in Portland and a factory in Washougal, Washington. 

Late 1990s -

By this time, sewing was increasingly made in Mexico and American-made were becoming scarce (but the fabrics were made in the USA). The company changed to a new logo and renewed its image and rushed to find new customers. The licence business in Japan was also launched and the business base moved away from the US mainland. It is quite possible that the products on this tag will be the last made in the USA.By this time, sewing was increasingly made in Mexico and American-made fabrics were becoming scarce (but the fabrics were made in the USA). The company changed to a new logo and renewed its image and rushed to find new customers. The licence business in Japan was also launched and the business base moved away from the US mainland. It is quite possible that the products on this tag will be the last made in the USA. 
– recommendation –

The history of sheep breeding.

Sheep breeding began around 11,000 years ago for wool and meat. Selective breeding led to different breeds adapted to different environments and purposes. The Industrial Revolution led to increased demand for wool and the development of specialized breeds.